“Bingedrinking,” normally denoted as substantial sporadic drinking refersto a modern description for consuming alcoholic drinks or beverages(Hayes, 2012 King, de Wit, McNamara, & Cao, 2011). The basicintention of binge drinking is to become intoxicated by heavy alcoholconsumption over a very short duration. The level of intoxicationmainly varies within and between different cultures that take part inthis practice. In addition, a binge caused by alcoholic beverages canoccur over a few hours, and then last for several days, in cases ofextended abuse the effect can last for weeks. The long-term impactsof alcohol abuse because of binge drinking are regarded as key publichealth problems. In addition, binge drinking is commonly associatedwith intense economic costs, increased disease burden, and socialharm (Winograd & Sher, 2015). Majority of people who are bingedrinkers are not aware of the risks related to binge drinking.
Bingedrinking is more likely to occur in males, in young and adolescencestages. Heavy and frequent binge drinking is linked with severeeffects on cardiac, neurologic, hematologic, gastrointestinal,musculoskeletal, and immune organs systems and an increased risk ofalcohol-induced psychiatric or brain disorders (Hayes, 2012). 1 outof 25 pregnant women who engage in binge drinking give birth tobabies with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders or fetal alcoholsyndrome. During adolescence, stage binge drinkers are associatedwith violent behavior, unplanned sex, traffic accidents, suicide, andunplanned pregnancies. If the binge drinker is young, he or she has ahigh chance of developing various disorders that are associated withalcohol use, for example, alcoholism. The discourse pursues toexplicate and describe substantially how classical conditioningtheory, operant conditioning theory, and cognitive and sociallearning theory and their association with binge drinking.
Addictionsare usually very difficult to break because situations and people whotrigger the unwanted behavior usually surround the affectedindividual. However, psychological conditioning is usually able tobreak the bad habit. Centuries ago, Ivan Pavlov a Russianphysiologist invented a discovery that to date resonates with bothpopular culture and psychological experiments (Barone, Hersen, &Van, 2012 King et al., 2011). The theory predicts that continuallypairing of a motivationally significant stimulus, for example, foodwith a specific signal, for example, a ringing bell gives aconditioned response especially when the bell rang even in absence offood. Additionally, Pavlov discovered that the particular signal madethe dog salivate which was the conditioned response. Nonetheless,this concept does not relate to the drooling dogs only because it hasformed an essential foundation for the development of binge drinking,its maintenance as well as its relapses.
Alcoholconsumption is usually rewarding through stress or anxiety reduction,as well as easing social relationships. Alcohol usually leads to thereduction of anxiety as it triggers a unconditioned response. Inaddition, the unconditioned response is triggered by theunconditioned stimulus ‘alcohol consumption’, which isconditioned to additional stimuli occurring along with pub or bar, oreven the people one enjoy drinking company. As time goes by, allthese objects turn out to be anxiety reducing, but since when in apub the expected behavior is to drink, the behavior increases thedrinking frequency.
Operantconditioning theory occurs because of the causes and effectsrelationship that exists between behavior and their consequences. Inaddition, operant has a common sense factor or element. The theorystates that when a behavior is rewarded, it increases, while when abehavior is reprimanded, it decreases. Therefore, addiction is simplya learned behavior since the initial enjoyment or pleasure isrewarding (Cornett, 2010). Just like in classical conditioningtheory, consumption of alcohol is very rewarding because it reducesstress or anxiety. The fact that each glass of wine or alcohol isrewarding leads to an increased operant response of drinking.Certainly, in people alcohol decreases stress reactions and thusstressed people work hard so as to get money to drink alcohol insteadof water.
Cognitiveand social learning
Thistheory by Albert Bandura states that people usually learn new ideasand skills through observing others and then trying out the behavior.For instance, children learn various languages by listening to theirparents or guardians and then copying them (Edberg, In Falivene, &Moden, 2015). Additional, parental drinking can present a model ofsuitable behavior for children, and they end up imitating them.Imitation can also be triggered by social modeling. The way alcoholis advertised, for example, that it is good, produces success duringsex, and enables an individual to appear feminine or masculine canmake many people try it. However, the frequency of alcoholism differsbetween different groups and societies.
Themost preferred theory that one can use to assist the binge-drinkingclient is Operant conditioning. The core idea is to enable the bingedrinking client to achieve good health, as well as recovery-orientedchoices (Watson, 2012). Conversely, the rewards ought to have someworth, and thus it must be substantial. Once more, common sense mustbe used, because it is not possible for an addicted person to give uphis or her addiction for just of ice-cream or chocolate. However, itis conceivable to make them surrender their compulsion for a car.
Barone,D. F., Hersen, M., & Van, H. V. B. (2012). AdvancedPersonality.Dordrecht: Springer.
Cornett,D. J. (2010). Beatbinge drinking : a smart drinking guide for teens, college studentsand young adults who choose to drink.Santa Rosa, Calif: People Friendly Books.
Edberg,M. C., In Falivene, C., & Moden, S. (2015). Essentialsof health behavior: Social and behavioral theory in public health.
Hayes,K. (2012). Talking about binge drinking. AustralianPharmacist, 31(12),952.
King,A. C., de Wit, H., McNamara, P. J., & Cao, D. (2011). Rewarding,stimulant, and sedative alcohol responses and relationship to futurebinge drinking. Archivesof general psychiatry, 68(4),389-399.
Watson,S. (2012). Bingedrinking.Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub.
Winograd,R. P., & Sher, K. J. (2015). Bingedrinking and alcohol misuse among college students and young adults.