Brahman and Atman

(Institution Affiliation)

The one absolute reality is Brahman while the inner soul divinity inevery being is Atman. Atman is a Hinduism word that means self orsoul. Brahman means the unchanging reality, the highest reality thatcannot be distinctly defined. Atman is one’s true identity one’sliving energy. Atman helps individuals attain liberation afteracquiring self-knowledge. Atman is not the person’s body but soulwhich is eternal and immortal. Brahman is the divine reality of theworld.

Brahman gives soul to all that exists in the world and is not anindividual. ‘Atman is Brahman’ means that all that lives in theworld is divine. In Hinduism, the belief is that Brahman is the causeof reality that exists in the universe. It is believed thatindividuals who realize their identity and the existence of Brahmanderive liberation a person must meditate unto self before knowingBrahman. As such, Brahman is construed as infinite and limitlesstranscending the whole world.

For decades philosophers have differed over the meaning of Brahmanand its relation to atman. For instance the Vedanta philosophicalschool held that Brahman was the ground of all beings. Individuals’souls are bound to misery because there is difference between atmanand Brahman. The Upanishads believe that atman is the innermost ofall creatures and the deepest level of existence. Upanishads alsobelieve that Brahman is one absolute reality that changes appearance.


Moksha is an Indian philosophical term that means liberation, selfrelease and emancipation. In other words, Moksha refer to freedom orliberation from rebirth. This liberation is attained while one is onearth. Moksha helps living beings to see the reality and truth behindtheir ignorance. The term Moksha originated from early Hinduismreligion that saw human life as encased in a repeated cycle ofsufferings. In Hinduism, Moksha implies the setting free, removingobstacles that restrict individuals’ life to permit individualsrealize their full potential. As such, Moksha infers to psychologicalliberation from fears restricting one to enjoy life as well asignorance.

Advaita Vedanta

Advaita refers to knowing the identity of true self. Followers ofAdvaita seek liberation by acquiring knowledge of .In order to achieve liberation through Advaita Vedanta one requiresreligious teacher to guide them in learning the knowledge ofliberation. Advaita Vedanta philosophy relies on sacred texts ofUpanishads. Advaita Vedanta base its teaching of liberation onBrahman that due to ignorance that characterize the material world,there is need to liberate individuals from this ignorance. AdvaitaVedanta also seeks to liberate individuals from forgetting their trueself due to ‘avidya’ (ignorance).

The goal of Advaita Vedanta is to liberate individuals through theknowledge of . This knowledge is acquired by readingthe sacred texts of Bhagavad Gita, Brahma Sutras and Upanishad.Individuals seeking liberation through Advaita Vedanta goes throughfour stages of Samanyasa (self-cultivation), listening to sageteachings (manana), reflecting on the teachings and contemplating onthe truth in the teachings.

Advaita Vedanta provides an elaborate path to attain Moksha.Individuals engage in self inquiry and practicing jnana Yoga. Mokshais attained by acquiring knowledge of Brahma and atman. Atman is thetrue self (pure consciousness) that allows individuals to haveknowledge of things. Anyone who wishes to have liberation must followthe guidance of teacher the guru provides stimulus to knowledge forhis disciple.