BUSNIESS PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 1
1.1:Key features of the trait approach to individual personality
Thebig five (five-factor model) was agreed upon because of research onCatell’s and Eysenck’s personality trait theories. According tothis model, there are five core traits that work in alignment todevelop individual personality (Judge et al., 2013). The first one isextraversion, which is the tendency to become sociable andperson-oriented. The second one is openness to experience, which isthe tendency of being creative and curious, at the same time, havingunconventional values and beliefs about different things. Thirdly,there is agreeableness, which is the tendency to being kind heartedand trustworthy. The fourth feature is neuroticism, which ishighlighted by the emotional unstableness and may lead to thedevelopment of psychological stresses. Lastly, there isconscientiousness, tendency of being industrious and ambitious in allundertakings. These are the key features of the trait approach ofindividual personality.
1.2:Ways psychology helps in the management of diversity
Psychologyhelps organizations to manage diversity in a number of ways. Itprovides managers with training on how to recruit and hire employeesfrom diverse backgrounds, and orienting the new employees into theworkplace. It also aids the employees with skills in realizing andmanaging the differences that exist among them due to diversebackgrounds, and learning how the differences may affect theirworking environment. Additionally, it helps the employees learn howto maximize their productivity without having to ignore thedifferences amongst them.
2.1:Competencies and Competency Analysis/ how they are applied in theorganization, for what purposes
Competenciesare the skills, knowledge and ability that someone has to have inorder to be in a certain job position. Additionally, competencies arepersonal characteristics that support the effective performance of anindividual. Therefore, competencies can be summed up to be whatpeople do to achieve certain results. There are three types ofcompetencies, which are core competencies, generic competencies androle specific competencies. Competency analysis, on the other hand,is an activity carried out to identify the knowledge, skills andprocess abilities that are necessary for one to perform certainorganizational activities. The aim of the analysis is to develop andmake use of these elements as a basis for workforce practice (Campionet al., 2011).
2.2:Purpose of job analysis
Thisactivity plays a crucial role in the following:-
Compensation and benefits packages
Assessment of job worthiness
Recruitment and selection
Thismakes job analysis one of the most important functions of the HumanResource department of any organization. By carrying out jobanalysis, the department is in a position of fitting in the rightkind of employees in the right place at any given time.
Validity and reliability
Legality and fairness
Cost and development time
Generation of feedback
Personal selection method
Work sample tests
Validation systems diagram
3.1:Key differences between performance goal orientation and learninggoal orientation, goal-setting theories
Inacademics, a person’s set beliefs are a reflection of the reasonswhy they approach and engage in certain academic tasks. A performancegoal orientation is demonstrated by a concern for one’s ability anddesire for recognition from the public regarding their performance.Performance goal oriented individuals also tend to value comparisonon the social level and are preoccupied with other people’sperceptions on them. Additionally, performance goal orientation isinclined to avoid perception of incompetence. On the other hand, alearning goal orientation concentrates on completing tasks andunderstanding new concepts. Learning goal orientation is alsoinclined to mastery, new skills development and problem-solving.
Whileacademic goal orientation is based on contemporary goal-motivetheory, achievement goal theory is important in education and isthought to be crucial in reinforcement of goals, teaching, learning,and motivation. People who have performance goal orientation oftenlack a sense of high performance, mainly because they do not focusenough on their performance. On the other hand, people with highlearning goal orientation concentrate on gaining new skills andlearning from any mistakes they have made. According to theprinciples of goal setting theories, there is no justifiablesubstitute for performance. Therefore, the fundamental responsibilityat work is for one to master their roles well. After doing this, theyhave the responsibility of continually suggesting different ways inwhich they can improve, or risk being a failure in that organization.
3.2:Components of motivation to manage
Thereare three main component of motivation to manage. These are thedirection, effort and persistence (Domyei & Ushioda, 2013).Direction is what a person in management is trying to do. Therefore,the major function of this component is to point the way in which themanager should operate. Effort describes how hard or how much inputsomeone is giving to management. Effort establishes the momentum formanagement, therefore, determines the energy with which the task isbeing approached. Persistence describes how long a person keeps ontrying to do certain tasks. Therefore, it determines how far changeis carried. This is both in time and in magnitude of the outcome.
4.1:Application to Anderson and Partners
Firststep: Use innovative compensation strategies to help influenceemployees’ attitude. This is applicable to employees who feel thatthey are not sufficiently compensated for their input.
Secondstep: Relate some compensation incentives with employees’ input topush for better performance. This is by generously regarding the bestemployees in order to influence the others to follow suit.
ThirdStep: Incorporate development programs for the employees and creatingan open organizational culture. These programs help to boost theworkers’ self-esteem and confidence.
Fourthstep: measure the basic employee motivation to determine the mostappropriate approaches to employee motivation at the company.
Inorganizations, much of the work is accomplished through teamwork.This means that it is important to determine the factors thatinfluence the effectiveness and the infectiveness of the teamprocesses. This would help in specifying how these factorscontribute, when they contribute and how they contribute to teamwork. As such, the IPO model (Input-Process-Output) was developed todo this. Inputs are described as the conditions that exist before agiven group activity takes place. The processes are the interactionsamong group members, such as communication and discussion of ideasfor accomplishing certain tasks.
Outputsare the results that a group activity that are valued by the team orthe organizations. Practically, the model is used in understandingand explaining the performance of a given team. At the same time, itcontinues to influence research in organizations. An example of anorganization is solving out the hiring process. For instance, if anumber of the employees have remained hired at the firm for less thana year, recruiting new employees may be time-consuming and costly.Therefore, by accurately using the model, the company can analyze andput to book various critical aspects of a transformation process.
4.3:Causes of group polarization
Accordingto Iyengar & Westwood (2014), there is a tendency of individualsto hold nuanced opinions about complex issues in organizations.However, groups of people are more likely to polarize towards oneextreme or the other. Instead of carrying out constructivenegotiations, most members of groups tend to take extreme positions,dragging along other members of the group with them. There are fivemajor causes of group polarization identified in this paper. Thefirst one is majority rule. Group polarization favors the majority,and when the largest number leans to one side, the rest are likely tofollow. The second cause is the problem of fitting in, as most peoplelook to receive acceptance from people that surround them and findthe rejection to be quite embarrassing and unwelcome.
Thethird cause of group polarization is group identity. The dynamic forcompleting the identification with a group and differentiating fromothers contributes to the phenomena of group polarization. There isalso the idea of social comparison that contributes to grouppolarization. Iyengar & Westwood (2014) say that, before aparticular group makes any decision, there is the tendency ofindividuals to think that their opinions are much better than theothers’ are. Lastly, there is the problem of persuasive argumentsview. This theory postulates that some members may along the groupprogression feel that the discussion is not going past initialthoughts and views. They then start to offer extreme and insensibleviews, which polarize other members’ attitudes and thoughts towardsthe group.
Campion, M.A., Fink, A. A., Ruggeberg, B. J., Carr, L., Phillips, G. M., &Odman, R. B. (2011). Doing competencies well: Best practices incompetency modeling. PersonnelPsychology, 64(1),225-262.
Dörnyei, Z.,& Ushioda, E. (2013). Teachingand researching: Motivation.Routledge.
Iyengar, S.,& Westwood, S. J. (2014). Fear and Loathing Across Party Lines:New Evidence on Group Polarization. AmericanJournal of Political Science.
Judge, T. A.,Rodell, J. B., Klinger, R. L., Simon, L. S., & Crawford, E. R.(2013). Hierarchical representations of the five-factor model ofpersonality in predicting job performance: Integrating threeorganizing frameworks with two theoretical perspectives. Journalof Applied Psychology, 98(6),875.