Cancer Assessment Liver Cancer

CancerAssessment:Liver Cancer

CancerAssessment:Liver Cancer

Biologicalchanges

Theprimarylivercanceris one of themostcommoncancersthat affectthedigestive system.Thistypeof canceraffectsthehumanliver,which reducestheefficiencyof thedigestive systemin carryingout its digestive functions.Livercanceroccurswhenthelivercellsgrowout of controlorthelivingcellsfailto dieas expected(Llovet, 2012). Theaccumulationof cellsthat areformedin excessof whatthebodyrequiresandtheincreasein thenumberof maturecellsresultsin thedevelopmentof malignanttumors.Someof thebiologicalchangesthat occurat theorganlevel includethereducedcapacityof theliverto producethebloodproteins,regulatethebloodsugar, andmetabolize drugsandalcohol(Llovet, 2012). Thesechangesoccurwhenthecancerhas progressedto advancedstages.

Cancercellsversus healthycells

Cancercellsthat causetumorsonthe liversurfacedifferfrom healthyornormalcellsin manyways.Unlike healthycells,cancercellshavenocapacityto communicatewith eachothervia chemicalsignals.In addition,cancercellsreproduceuncontrollably, unlikethenormalcellsthat reproducein a controlled manner(Dailey, 2014). Cancercellsalsolosetheadhesion property,which makesthem metastasize to otherorgans.Progressionof livercancerresultsin thecollapseof liverfunctions,which in turnaffectsthefunctionality of theentirebody.Forexample,thebodyof theaffectedpersonsfeelswornout, itchy,losesweight,andbecomesswollen.Inaddition,an advancedstageof thelivercancerdisruptshomeostatic processandself-regulated process,includingbloodsugar levels, bloodcirculation,andthepH of thebodyfluids(Ahmed, Lobo &ampDileep, 2009).

Treatmentof livercancer

Livercanceris commonlytreatedusingthechemotherapeutic approach.Thisinvolvestheadministrationof drugsthat stopsuncontrolledcellgrowth(Harring, Nguyen, Goss, &amp Mahony 2011). Tumorsandtissuesthat surroundthem may beremovedthrough surgery.Surgerymay alsobe extendedto removea portionof theaffectedliverin a processknownas hepatectomy. Alivertransplantcan alsobedonewhenthecancerhas not spreadto thesurroundingorgans.Radiotherapy is a treatmentapproachthat involvestheuseof X-rays (heavyenergyrays)to destroyabnormalcancercells,thuspreventingthem from creatingmoretumors.Thermalablation is a treatmentoptionthat involvesthedestructionof cancercellsusingheat(Harring et al., 2011). Thistypeof treatmentmay begiventhrough theskin,during surgeryorlaparoscopy. Chemoembolization is a therapythat involvestheinjectionof drugsinto thehepatic arterythat supplybloodto tumors.Thistreatmentworksby reducingtheflowof bloodinto cellsformingtumors,which thencausestheir death.

Lifestylechoices

Goodlifestyle choicescan preventtheoccurrenceof thelivercancerandhelppeoplewhohavealreadybeenaffectedleada healthierlife.Forexample,eatingbettersuppliesthebodywith energyandnutrients that are requiredto protectitfrom sicknessesandreducefatigueamong thecancerpatients(Llovet, 2012). In addition,a reasonablelevel of exercisefollowedby therestcan helpthecancerpatientsin overcomingthechallengeof excessivefatigue.Avoidingalcoholismandexcess smokingis alsoadvisablesince itreducesthechancesof sufferingfrom livercancerandits rapidprogressionforpatientswhohavealreadybeenaffected.

Comparinglivercancerandpancreatic cancer

Theprocessof thedevelopmentof thetwo typesof cancerat cellular levels is similar.Bothcancersstartby uncontrolledcellgrowthandfailureof thematurecellsto die.Althoughthetwo typesof cancerspreads to thenearby organs,pancreatic cancertakeslongerbefore affectingotherorgans.In addition,pancreatic cancerremainssilentandproducessymptomsin advancedstages.

References

Ahmed,I., Lobo, N. &amp Dileep, N. (2009). Malignant tumors of the liver.Surgery27(1): 30–37. Doi:10.1016/j.mpsur.2008.12.005.

Dailey,P. (2014). Healthycells versus cancer cells.New York, NY: AP John Institute for Cancer Research.

Harring,R., Nguyen, N., Goss, &amp Mahony, A. (2011). Treatment of livermetastases in patients with neuroendocrine tumors: A comprehensivereview. InternationalJournal of Hepatology,2011, 1-11.

Llovet,M. (2012). EASL-EORTC clinical practice guidelines: Management ofhepatocellular carcinoma. Journalof Hepatology,56, 908-943.