China:Middle Economy and Industrialization
China:Middle economy and industrialization
Geographically,China is centrally positioned between countries from the north, southand southwest, hence referred to as the “middle kingdom”. Fromthe South of China lies countries such as Burma and Vietnam,Afghanistan and Pakistan on the Southwest, Russia and Serbia in thenorth (Wang& Szirmai, 2012). In traditional Chinese, the nation’s name China means “Zhongguo”that is translated into “central nation” or normally as “middlekingdom”.According to Zhou (2009),China is the largest country on the planet in terms of population,with a populace count of roughly 1.3 billion people. In industrialterms, since the adoption of “open door policy”, China has becomeone of the most industrialized nations in the world. This essay,therefore, aims to discuss the China (middle kingdom)’s populationgrowth issues and industrialization.
Researchby Zhou indicate that China faces serious socio-economic problemsrelated to overpopulation such as land degradation, depletion of theavailable natural resources, pollution and deteriorating livingcondition (2009). Despite the fact, that China is highlyindustrialized, its economic growth is slow due to its highpopulation. Since 1970s, overpopulation has remained one of thegreatest problems that the Chinese government has to find effectivesolutions to address. In 1979, China proposed and implemented“one-child policy” as a strategy to control birth control henceslowing down population growth (Goh,2011). Inthis policy, it was stated that, citizens must qualify for a birthcertificate before giving birth to their children. Citizens who wouldchoose to have only one child were rewarded by being given specialbenefits. On the other hand, people who violated the policy rulewould be punished through taxation and loss of job.
Eversince the execution of “one-child policy”, it is projected thatby 2030, China will have achieved its goal of zero population growthrate (Wang & Szirmai, 2012). Since the beginning of 19thcentury, China’s growth rate has slowed because of variousgovernment policies and strategies being implemented. Thesepopulation growth control strategies apart from one child policyinclude encouraging late marriages, free health care, better pay forfamilies with one child to name but a few. According to Zhou (2009),it is projected that China’s population growth will be stabilizedby year 2040 if the government remains consistent and focused onimplementing effective population control strategies.
Accordingto Zhou (2009), population growth in China goes hand in hand its rateof industrialization. Wang & Szirmai (2012) assert that in 1960s,almost 60% of Chinese labor was in the Agriculture sector. However,by 1980s, the increasing population resulted in rapid growth of theindustrial sector. This is the period in which the China governmentadopted the “open door policy” that enabled business people toexport and import goods into China without so many constraints. The“open door policy” has resulted in rise of factories exportinggoods to Western stores hence making huge profits that have enabledmuch Chinese come of out of poverty and raise their living standards.
Accordingto Wang & Szirmai (2012), industrialization and manufacturing arethe major key inputs in the economic growth of China, which havereceived support from the “open door policy,” i.e. openness totrade The Chinese government remains an unwavering promoter andsupporter of export-oriented private investment. Political leaderscompete in attracting new industrial projects in their regions, sincethe industries do not only enhance economic development but alsoprovide jobs to hundreds of jobless people hence raising theirsocio-economic status. In this regards, the increase in populationhas made China, one of the leading developed countries in the world.
Goh,E. (2011). China`sOne-Child Policy and Multiple Caregiving: raising little suns inXiamen. Journalof International and Global Studies (NewYork: Routledge).
Wang,L., & Szirmai, A. (2012). Capital inputs in the Chinese economy:Estimates for the total economy, industry and manufacturing. ChinaEconomic Review, 23(1),81-104.
Zhou,H.(2009).Population Growth and Industrialization. EconomicInquiry,Vol. 47. No.2.