CLASSICAL ROME 6
Romancivilization is perceived as one of the greatest civilizations. Romasprang as a meager agricultural civilization during the 10thcentury BC. This became founded by Romulus and Remus (Markel,2008). By the moment the empire fell, the reach of the Romans by farexceeded Rome itself, controlling the Mediterranean area, theBalkans, and Western and southern Europe. Although the Roman Empirewas once strong, it finally broke down because of internal conflictsand attacks that emanated from outsiders. Consequently, the Westernempire became eventually broken up into different kingdoms such asBritannia, Hispania, Gaul, and Africa around the 5thcentury AD. The chief aim of this assignment is to discuss thedevelopment of the Roman Empire civilization from origin to fall.Besides, the implications of the Roman Empire civilization in termsof political, cultural, and social contributions to the modern worldwill also be discussed.
Riseand Fall of the Roman Civilization
From5thto 3rdcentury BC, Romans fought war after war in Italy until the momentRome became the most powerful state on the peninsula. During the 2ndand 3rdcenturies BC, Romans fought far from home in every direction,especially against Carthage to the South. The success of the Romansin these campaigns made Rome the leading power in the Mediterraneanarea around the 1stCentury BC. The fear of being attacked and the desire for affluenceboosted Roman imperialism. The worries of the senator concerningnational security made them plan for pre-emptive attacks againstpotential enemies, while everyone had the desire of capturing newfarm land and plunder. Poorer soldiers had the hope of pulling theirfamilies from poverty. On the other hand, enemies that commandedarmies desired to strengthen their campaigns for office throughacquiring glory and immense wealth. Rome did not start as an empirein control of a vast amount of land. Rome started as a meager villageon the Tiber river banks. This point made it easier to cross, whichmade the trade route to grow. The Latin people settled first on thehills next to the Tiber River. There were seven chief hills, wherethe Capitoline and the Palatine being the primary ones initially.Between these two hills, there was a marshy region that Romansdrained and made into the Forum Romanum (Markel,2008). This was the chief business and political center for RomeCity. Since 753 to 509 BC, Rome was ruled by kings, making a monarchygovernment. Its last three kings were Etruscan. Although theEtruscans offered much to the city, Romans were not happy with theforeigners ruling them. This made the Romans to expel the Etruscans.
Afterexpelling the Etruscans, Romans established a republic that had twoannually elected consuls. The consuls ruled under the guidance of ajudiciary and senate system. During this epoch, Romans foughtoffensive and defensive battles this expanded their territory on theway. By the conclusion of the 1stcentury BC, Rome had the dominance of the Italian Peninsula andsections of Spain, Britain, and France. By then, Rome was becomingpolitically and geographically an empire. In the last years of theRoman republic, there was a rise of dictators in Rome. When Romansexpelled Etruscans, they made it illegal to become a king. Theassassination of the last dictator, Caesar, ignited a civil war thatlasted for ten years (Housel, 2014). This placed this republic onfunerary pyre however, from these ashes, the phoenix of empirearose. When Octavius took over, he had learned from Caesar’smistakes and assumed political power, becoming the first emperor ofRome. Rome became an empire as it pretended to progress as arepublic. The empire that became established in 14 BC eventually fellin 476 AD, when Romulus, the last emperor became forced to resign.
TheRoman civilization had cultural, social and political contributions.One of the political contributions of the Roman civilization was thecreation of a constitution. The Roman Republic developed aconstitution, which gave rights to commoners and nobles somethingwhich was almost unheard of previously. Besides, barbarian tribesthat succeeded the empire adopted most of the empire’s laws andgovernment forms. For example, Visigoth kingdom had a senate systemand for some time consuls. Another political contribution of theRoman civilization was the expansion of the boundaries. Leaders likePompey and Caesar extended the borders of Rome. For example, Pompeyexpanded the empire on the east to incorporate Syria and Asis Minor,while Caesar captured Gaul.
Romancivilization led to the spreading of the roman culture. This was afundamentally positive development that changed forever the face ofthe Western culture. This supplied a critical ideological prop todifferent nineteenth century projects of debatable morals like theimposition of official integrated culture. This replaced a rich localdiversity in emerging states such as Germany and Italy. Thecivilization also supported the culture of agriculture through thecreation of a large network of vast aqueducts this helped inbringing up water from faraway places to the Rome City (Housel,2014). This supported the practice of agriculture. In addition, withthe Roman civilization, the Romans introduced Latin as a principallanguage in Western Europe.
Onthe other hand, the Roman civilization also had social contributions.The civilization ensured that extensive roadways across the empirewere built. This was of immense importance to the society since itensured that transportation and trade was easy (Gibbon, 2009).Besides, through the extensive road systems, it was possible tosupply people with security since the extensive road system made iteasy to move soldiers.
Romancivilization changed from a monarchy system to a classical republic,and later changed to a progressively more autocratic empire. Throughthe use of conquest and assimilation, Rome was in a position todominate different regions such as Eastern Europe, Northern Europe,Asia Minor, and North Africa. During the Roman civilization, Romansfought offensive and defensive battles this expanded their territoryon the way. By the conclusion of the 1stcentury BC, Rome had the dominance of the Italian Peninsula andsections of Spain, Britain, and France. By then, Rome was becomingpolitically and geographically an empire. Roman civilization led tothe spreading of the roman culture. This was a fundamentally positivedevelopment that changed forever the face of the Western culture.Besides, the Roman civilization also had social contributions. Thecivilization ensured that extensive roadways across the empire werebuilt. Roman civilization also contributed to the modern systems ofgovernment, politics, art, literature, religion, language, andtechnology. For example, when it came to language, the romancivilization led to the introduction of Latin as a principal languagein Western Europe.
Gibbon,E. (2009). Historyof the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,Volume 3.New York: BiblioBazaar.
Housel,J.D. (2014). LeveledTexts: Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire.New York: Wiley & Sons.
Markel,R. J. (2008). Thefall of the Roman Empire.Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.