Curriculum Guide for Spoken Language and Word Recognition Supported By Research-Based Practices

Curriculum Guide for Spoken Language and Word Recognition SupportedBy Research-Based Practices

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Curriculum guide for spoken language

Explanationof educational purpose of the strategy

This curriculum guide is to help teachers with effective strategiesfor spoken language and word recognition. It is expresslypremeditated to be used by learners with disabilities. As with allthe instructions in the curriculum, the ultimate goal is to help thedisabled learners to understand the concepts of spoken language andalso be able to recognize words. The focus is on shifting to meaningafter the learners have been assured of foundational skills such asfluency and vocabulary. Additionally, the curriculum guide is to helpthe disabled learners to learn the English language and developliteracy skills in a cohesive manner.

Descriptionsof effective teaching strategies

Stanberyy &amp Swanson (2015) describes teaching strategies thatyield maximum results with learners with disabilities. He says suchstrategies draw upon some important intervention practices which arefocused on maximum outcome. The interceptions include directinstruction, learning strategy instructions and utilization of asequential and structured multi-sensory approach. While applyingthese, the teachers do the following:

  1. Administer necessary probes

  2. Provide well-designed intensive practice for the learners

  3. Provide the appropriate prompts of the strategies they intend to use

  4. Engage the learners in process type questions like “How well do you understand this? How can you apply it?”

  5. Supply regular and appropriate feedback

Prater (2007) says that a sound instructional practice includes dailyreviews of the learners’ progress, presentation of new but relevantmaterial, independent research on best-practice, and formativeevaluations (given later in the paper). Additionally, the mostimportant outcome of teaching word recognition to disabled learnersis ensuring that they learn how to correctly recognize real words,not just saying words that make no sense, as long as they use phonicskills. Therefore, the most effective approach for spoken languageand word recognition for the disabled learners is direct instruction(Lombardino, 2011). This involves drilling, repetition ofinstructions and directness in teaching.

Taskanalysis for teachers and student activities

Wordrecognition

Instruction component

Program activities and techniques: Teacher’s instructions

Segmentation

  • Break down the skill in target, for instance letter identification, into smaller components, that is, helping by sounding out each letter’s sound in that specific word.

  • Segment the component parts. For example, speak out each phoneme in a given word.

Sequencing

  • Have the child break out a new word’s sounds

  • Reduce aids step by step

  • Have the difficulty levels sequenced

  • Outline learning sequences. For example, utilize the first 20 minutes of the lesson looking at the words from previous classes, use 10 minutes to point out new words in the passage and use the last minutes practicing new sounds.

Advanced planner

  • Prompt the learners to review instructions before embarking on studies.

  • Have the learners concentrate their efforts on certain material

  • Spend time familiarizing the learners about new tasks before giving them the information

  • Have the learners understand the objectives of the class each time.

Spokenlanguage skills

Instruction component

Activity

Explanation

The first activity is supplying the learner with more information regarding the concepts that have been learnt, how to go about the steps and following the correct procedures to executing them. Secondly, teacher shall use additional texts while passing out instructions to the learner.

One-on-one enquiring

The teacher should:

  • Ask the learners questions and have them respond correctly.

  • Encourage the learners to enquire more about what they do not understand or wish to have more information about.

The teacher and the student should:

  • Always be active in one-on-one enquiry.

  • Create regular sessions to practice spoken language

Collective directives

  • The teacher to ensure that the learners collect in small groups for the purpose of verbal interaction. While in these groups, the teacher shall give collective instructions to guide the learners through the sessions.

Demonstrating processes

  • The teacher shall guide the learners through instructions for each lesson. Thus shall help the learners to understand the essence of the particular activities, hence follow easily.

Prompts for strategy

The teacher shall do the following:-

  • Keep reminding the learners to use a number of steps in learning.

  • Explain how the steps should be followed to complete the classwork.

Activities to take place:-

  • Teacher to encourage the learners to voice their thoughts.

  • Teacher should jot down important notes regarding the effectiveness of the teaching strategy.

Management of challenges

The teacher should ensure that all activities are brief and that they are not too bulky for the learners. They therefore should:-

  • Assist with the methodology where necessary.

  • Simplify any parts of the instructions that may seem challenging.

  • Prioritize the tasks, beginning from the easiest to the most challenging.

  • Begin with easy concepts (such as identifying sounds) to more difficult ones (such as creating new sounds).

  • Involve the learners in the task of identifying challenges.

Accommodationsfor use in the classroom

Sireci, Scaparti &amp Li (2005) describe accommodations asalterations in the way that tasks are presented, which allows thelearners with disabilities to finish the assignments, just as otherchildren do. The content of the assignments is left intact, and thelearners with disabilities are not given any unfair advantage overthe others. The aim of accommodations is to make the learners withdisability demonstrate that they are capable of knowing without beingimpeded by their respective disabilities.

The following are the accommodations for learners with disabilitiesunder this strategy:

Intervention

Description

Presentation

  • Providence of material on audio tape and large print.

  • Reduction of items per page and oral presentation of instructions.

Response

  • Encouragement of verbal response.

  • Recording of answers into computers.

  • Capturing of response by audio devices.

Setting

  • Allow for spacious and convenient seating in class.

  • Minimize class distractions.

  • Give tests to small groups.

Boyle &amp Scanlon (2009) assert that it is advisable for theteacher to do more research about accommodations, especially when itis found that a certain intervention is not working or the learnersare not comfortable with it.

Studentevaluation and assessment procedures

Task

Process

Essence of books

The teacher shall have the learners use different books with the same prints to monitor those who are having difficulty following the concept of the content.

Phonemic assessment

Prepare documents with certain words, and give them to the children to fill in blanks on adjacent sides.

Phonics

The teacher shall name certain letters and have the learners say its sound. For further skill development, the teacher shall make the letters more challenging, and ask the learners to say the sounds.

Vocabulary

To test the learners’ prowess for vocabulary, the teacher shall say some words and have the learners repeat after him. They should also come up with the words’ definitions.

References

Boyle, J. R.,&amp Scanlon, D. (2010).&nbspMethodsand strategies for teaching students with mild disabilities: Acase-based approach.Belmont, California: Wadsworth.

Lombardino, L. (2011). Assessing and differentiating reading &ampwriting disorders: Multidimensional model. Mason, OH: CengageLearning.

Prater, M.A . (2007). Teaching strategies for students with mildto moderate disabilities. New York, NY: Pearson Publishers.

Sireci, S.G., Scarpati, S. E., &amp Li, S. (2005). Test accommodations forstudents with disabilities: An analysis of the interactionhypothesis.&nbspReviewof Educational Research,&nbsp75(4),457-490.

Stanberry, K. &amp Swanson, L. (2015). Effective readinginterventions for kids with learning disabilities. Retrieved on10 March 2015 from:http://www.readingrockets.org/article/effective-reading-interventions-kids-learning-disabilities