Question 4: marital relations and gender roles inthe nineteenth century
Theworks of Kate Chopin, Gustav Flaubert and Henrik Ibsen shows us thegender roles and marital relations of the nineteenth century by thereaction of the populace to them. In the nineteenth century, womenwere expected not to be sexual, pure, private, content, weak,passive, domestic and social among others principles. The men weresupposed to be the opposite of these stereotypes. Kate Chopin novelThe Awakening was banned soon after its publication in 1899 in hernative city of St. Louis. The novel was a straightforward examinationof female sensual passion and marital infidelity. This was aviolation of the norms then whereby even doctors believed that womenhad little or non-existent sexual desire. Flaubert novel MadameBovary was denounced as a crime against public and religious morals.The publisher, printer and Flaubert were tried in a criminal court,however they were acquitted of the charges. The consideration thatthe book was wanton and immoral testifies of the stereotypes backthen. The 1879 Henrik Ibsen drama A Doll`s House examined thedependency, timidity also the passivity of the prevailingstereotypes. All these authors went against the grain in writing suchworks therefore, the new style of writings in literature were calledrealism. The authors wrote in a truthful portrayal of contemporarylife.
Question 5: the Controversy Surrounding Paintings of GustaveCourbet and Edouard Manet
Thepaintings of Gustave Courbet were controversial in his time becausethe emphasis on the ordinary was done. Stonebreakers are such kind ofart comprising of two peasants unceremoniously finishing their dailylabor. They had their faces away from the viewer so being anonymous.The choice of colors in the painting differed from the bright colorsof neo-classicist works. The kind of sad social circumstances thatthe peasants are trapped in also is clearly depicted. Edouard Manetintroduced fashion and nudity of the female gender in his painting,which in his time was very controversial. The art at that time lookeddown on fashion and nudity therefore, The Paris Salon rejected oneof his paintings. He led a transition from realism to impressionism.The two painters clearly stood in a transitional period where thestyle of art at their prevailing time was making from one art form toanother so this generated controversy.