Decision-Makingand Information Systems
Decision-makingand information systems
1.0Management information systems usually assist a company to make validand sound decisions. An organization achieves this by providingupdated and accurate information as well as performing analyticfunctions. In this regards, an organization must make sure that thesystem of management information it chooses is applicable to theavailable information formats within(Heijden 2009).In addition, appropriate systems for management information canformulate the core data available from the organization’s recordsand operations into reports that can guide and direct the managementtime when making decisions. The information needed when a company ismaking crucial decisions is related to the stage of organizationdecision-making and the sum of structure available to the managersduring the period of decision-making.
1.1The organization should consider some important aspects such as adecision whether it is necessary to replace the existing vans andcars with electrically powered motor vehicles. The first thing thatthe management should consider is the scenario i.e. it is veryimperative because the capability to keep the new implementationrunning is an essential decision-making tool. Some MIS have thisfeature of handling scenarios built in, whereas others can onlyprovide the required information for operating scenarios for othertypes of applications, for example, spreadsheets(Grant et al. 2009).Therefore, the decision of the company will be influenced by theconsequences of deciding to follow one way and not the other. Inaddition, analysing the scenario is essential because the companywill be able to identify the variables that would change if theydecided to buy the electric motor vehicles. For example, the companymay decide to reduce the number of employees to cater for the newproject. The management information systems play an essential role inensuring that realistic scenarios are possible.
Inaddition, the other management information that is of greatimportance during the decision-making process is projections. Anydecisions made within the company can result in changes that canalter the company’s overall or strategic goals. Additionally,management information systems usually have either analysis trendbuilt in or necessary information that allows the management team tocarry out an analysis(Benwari 2014).Majority of the companies’ strategies usually include reliableprojections that assist them in identifying fundamental operatingresults. Analyzing and identifying projects will assist themanagement team greatly because they will allow them to know theimpacts of the new project in current circumstances, and how theimpacts will change after the implementation of the electric motorvehicles.
Implementationis also very essential when a company is making decisions. When thecompany has specific goals, reliable documentation of the managementinformation systems, as well as the trends necessary to support itsexpectations the company must ensure that it develops a reliableimplementation plan. The management information provides the requireddata to determine whether the decision made have produced desiredeffect or if a corrective action is necessary for enabling thecompany achieve its set goals(Hall 2013).In this scenario, if the impacts of replacing the manual vehicleswith electric vehicles are not as expected, the management team canimplement management information systems so as to evaluate andanalyze the situation again, and then decide on the importantadditional measures that will be necessary.
1.2Many organizations usually depend on information technology, andcomputer to operate efficiently and to conduct its operations. A DBMS(Database Management System) refers to a collection of differentprograms that enables the organization to modify, store, as well asto remove information from a database(Grant et al. 2009).In addition, there are numerous unrelated types of databasemanagement, and they range from small systems that are used tooperate on personal computers, to big or huge systems that are usedto operate on mainframes. Examples of database applications arecomputerized parts that comprises of inventory systems, automatedteller machines, computerized library, and flight reservationsystems. Since the main functions of database management are to storeand retrieve data, data manipulation, report generation, and databasemodifications, the system will be of great importance during theprocess of decision-making in the company. In other words, databasesystems and IT systems are very crucial when providing the storedcompany’s information(Granitzer 2012).The reason behind this is that, in order for a management informationsystem to avail present, past and future prediction information, thesystem must have software that assist in decision making, as well asdata resources for example, databases, decision support systems,hardware resources, and any other computerized program that allow thedepartment to operate efficiently.
2.0)KMS (Knowledge management system) is an essential weapon in anorganization and it is used to transform available knowledgeresources in a business with intellectual capital that is used toensure competition advantage(Chadha 2011).The components of knowledge management are knowledge contribution,sharing, retention, upgrading, and storage. All these knowledgemanagement components usually work through the following processknowledge collected from varies existing sources such as systems,people, file cabinets, desktops, and data stores. Then all valuableknowledge is preserved in the company’s knowledge repositorydepartment(Jain and Pandey 2012).Later, the collected knowledge is transferred to the systems orpeople who will use it appropriately. The right information istransferred to the right system or people at the correct time. Thestored knowledge can then be accessed in the future and if theinformation expires, it is removed from the systems.
Thecomponents of knowledge management architecture comprise of knowledgeportals, knowledge repository, and knowledge components. Theknowledge portal is a website where members of different knowledgegroups start with entering, accessing, and finding knowledge fromdifferent sources(Brown et al. 2013).The organization should design the knowledge portal in such mannerthat it targets the types of tasks intended for accomplishment. Inaddition, knowledge portal profiles are determined by the access toknowledge subject matter, community description, collaboration, and acombination of the three factors(Grant et al. 2009).Alternatively, the knowledge component refers to a self-contained,recyclable item that can either be used alone or combined with othercomponents to satisfy all the knowledge management requirements.Moreover, a generic architecture issue is relevant to all thecomponents. The knowledge components must interface with knowledgerepository, knowledge portal, as well as other knowledge components.It is possible to customize the knowledge component to cope withspecific events of knowledge. The knowledge repository usuallyconsists of different servers where knowledge indicators andknowledge artifacts such as presentations, documents, databases,graphs, charts, plans, and audio files are made easily accessible(Becerra et al. 2010).Lastly, global fundamental knowledge repositories are usuallyinter-connectable globally distributed, knowledge repositories thatappear to be a solo entity to knowledge and portals components. Inother words, the knowledge system comprises of user interface,knowledge management, then knowledge searching, reporting, themanagement of acquired data, and knowledge repositories.
2.2Some of the eco-friendly problems that can be solved by knowledgemanagement include how to manage and organize the knowledge resourcespresent in the organization, how to discover and share the availableknowledge resources, and how to utilize the available knowledge(King 2009).KMSis used to solve these problems because it can make sure that theright information gets to the right staffs and at the appropriatetime.
2.3The company should implement the knowledge management systems in thefollowing ways. Establishing appropriate objectives for knowledgemanagement- it is very important for an organization to articulateand envision the end state before defining a process, selectingtools, as well as before developing workflows (Asemi et al. 2011).The next stage should be preparing for change- this stage isessential because knowledge management is usually more than theapplication of technology. KMS involves varies cultural changesmainly based on how employees share and perceive the knowledge theypossess or develop. Defining high-level step is usually aimed atfacilitating effective management of organization knowledge assets.Alternatively, the step of prioritizing and determining technologyneeds mainly depends on the established objectives and processcriteria and control(Bruce 2014).In addition, a company should not rush to purchase new technologieswithout first accessing the existing ones. Assessing the currentstate is an essential step because it assesses people, technology,culture, structure, and process. Devising a strategy of how toimplement knowledge management is also very essential because itprovides a reliable roadmap. The steps of implementation of a KMSprogram usually require personnel funding and resources. The laststep that should follow during the implementation of KMS is measuringand improving the program so that it can be effective.
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