Education Theories



JeanWilliam Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are both psychologists who dedicatedtheir time in having different theories that concerns various stagesof a child’s development. Though both of them are psychologiststhat deal with children’s development, the manner and ways throughwhich they put across their views slightly differ from one another’s.

Tostart with, the theory of Vygotskytalks of the development of higherintellectual functions in children. This theory suggests reasoning asan act of evolvement through practical undertakings that are based ona social environment. The theory emphasizes that culture affects orshapes cognitive development.Writing must have a great deal ofreasoning in it and cognitive function is a part that cannot beoverlooked in this practice. As a literature teacher for 5thgraders, I would utilize this theory by introducing the class tovarious ways of reasoning from a single topic. This would help me toevaluate the thinking ability of a student which will help him inwriting. Development of reasoning is arbitrated by signs and symbols,hence dependent on cultural practices, language as well as on generalintellectual processes. This means that Vygotsky believed thatlanguage emerges from social interactions, for aims of communication.To him, language is a greatest tool that human beings can use tocommunicate with the environment.He suggests that language is notonly the main means by which adults communicate with children, butlanguage itself becomes a very powerful tool of cognitive adaptation.In writing, one has to be aware of their environment to be able toarticulate their notions in a flowing manner. Reasoning as well asintellectual processes are so paramount in this field. According toVygotsky, signs and symbols are mediators of reasoning. This meansthat when a child is exposed to signs and symbols, it will help indeveloping his or her reasoning process. Furthermore, Vygotsky aswell theorized a notion of zone of proximal development. This concepthas been seen to point to the way in which acquiring of new knowledgeis contingent on preceding learning, as well as obtainability ofinstructions.

Onthe other hand, Piaget’s theory suggests that intellectualdevelopment is mostly universal across cultures. He attributeddifferent types of psychological processes to different forms ofsocial relationships. His theory of intellectual development suggeststhat children develop best in a classroom with interaction. Accordingto him, a child’s mind is basically shaped through variousenvironmental factors. When it comes to moral education, Piagetbelieved that children develop ethical notions in stages.Furthermore, he believed in the principle that children create theirconceptions of the world. According to Piaget, language is contingentto thought for its development. This means that to him, languagecomes after notions or thoughts. As a teacher for 5thgrade students, I would use this theory to teach and know variouscultures for every student.

Afifth grader is a child whose mind is at the stage of developing.Many factors are to be considered while teaching such a child how towrite. Writing requires research, input as well as revision. Thisentails taking notes, planning, paraphrasing, an emphasis on logic,drafting, editing and so forth. As a literature teacher for 5thgrade students, Using Vygotsky’s theory will help improve a child’sability to lean from text. This means there will be collaborationbetween me and a child and this will help in summarizing,questioning, clarifying as well as predicting. Furthermore, I wouldrecognize the sharp students using this theory.I would use thehypothesis of evaluation to know which child needs more help. UsingPiaget’s theories, a fifth grade can try new approaches in case heor she doesn’t get it right the first time. This will help inrevision and editing thus making my students understand fully whatwriting is all about. Various types of writing require variousapproaches. However, using Vygotsky theories will mean dependinghugely on verbal instruction, which may not be equally useful in allcultures for all learning types. At this point, as a literatureteacher for 5thgraders, this theory will not help but trying new approaches with thePiaget’s theories will be of great help since I can have childrenthat have diversified cultures.