Ethical and Social Responsibility

Ethicaland Social Responsibility

(University)

Contents

SECTION A 3

SECTION B 6

Features of Human Resource plan 7

i. Well defined objectives 7

ii. Determination of Human Resource needs 7

iii. Adjustment of demand and supply 7

iv. Creation of Preferred work environment 7

v. Retention of manpower inventory 7

i. Vendor Management 7

ii. Purchase requisition 8

iii. Purchase items 8

iv. Tender management 8

v. Contract management 8

What is Social Responaibility ? 9

Case Study 10

SECTIONA

Ethicaland Social Responsibility

Ethicsand Social Responsibility as an important aspect of projectmanagement, this paper confronts, is significant in various projectmanagement functions.Arguably, its inclusion presupposes theethical considerations in undertaking divergent tasks. Evidently,projects managers are judged on the basis of how well a project iscompleted, with respect to time, budget and within scope. As projectsmanagement becomes a vital part in various industries, upholding highethical standards and social responsibility becomes eminent. It isemphasized that social responsibility and ethical conduct areimportant since projects are often typified by high risk and highvisibility capital, to name a few. Tentatively, long projectlifecycle in many industries implies that the consequence ofparticular actions may not be discovered for a long time. The tasksof project managers are twofold, to identify the significantecological systems, recognizing the external dimension of socialresponsibility and their applicability in any project. Thisretrospect paper argues that the conformance of ethical and socialresponsibility standards is imperative to project management. Assuch, it argues the fact that codes of conduct and socialresponsibilities play an important role in the society. As such, itwill draw its discussions from relevant research and case studies.

Evidently,projects have witnessed a fair share of unethical behaviors. Theseattributes range from instances of interpersonal conflict, havingchallenges with project sponsors, vendor negotiations, culturaldifferences and government regulations (Pells,2012).At times, a project manager may interact with people of differentcalibers where numerous ethical and social responsibility challengesare eminent. The manager’s actions may be questioned, subject tothe people’s culture. As such, what is expected of the manager’sethical approach? Hence, what is the importance of code of ethics andsocial responsibility? Simply put, code of conduct is defined as aset of required behaviors, actions, and responsibilities within anorganization (Pells,2012).The establishement of codes of conduct is essential values theorganization’s objectives in projects through continued operationsto customers, employees, shareholders, the entire community and thepeers. It is imperative to consider these players while to profferedproject management practices (Labuschagne, Brent &ampClaasen, 2005).

Ethicalreasoning is regarded as an essential aspect of moral decision-makingand behavior while undertaking any tasks (Driscoll, Dawn Marie andHoffman, W. Michael, 2002). Making moral decision-making willsignificantly increase the management approach in solving ethicalissues that may arise when addressing such issues. Sound choices canbe easily achieved when these initiatives are considered. The code ofconduct, therefore, will guide the managers in making preferreddecision-making that pertains to a specific issue. In the case ofTrafigura, the managers could consider the moral implication thatcould be brought about by the illegal dumping of toxic waste inAbidjan. Tentatively, Trafigura could have considered the socialimplication that could have been brought by the resultant use of theherbicides.Stipulated code of ethics is essential in variousfunctions, where a large workforce is considered. Evidently, itsupports a tentative working environment, in which the employees cansafely work amongst themselves in promoting a proffered approach tomanagement and dispensing various functions. Arguably, the communityplays a mediating role in the organization and society since itspeaks out what the community needs. Attuning an organization’spractices to the society’s expectation is paramount. This not onlyimproves an organizations shared responsibility, but rather, developsa working relationship with affiliated parties. More often than notmany organizations have violated the conduct of ethics when goingabout their business. Trafigura, a multinational company thatoperates in trading metals and energy including oil, caused a healthcrisis that affected about 108,000people in 2006 (Citation). In thiscase, Trafigura could not meet the cost of dumping its toxicmaterials (Citation). Tasked with the project of dumping toxicwaste, it illegally dumped the waste in Abidjan. Tentatively,DynCorp, a private military firm was hired by the US government toprotect areas within Colombia (Hynes, 2011). It was however citedthat the company carelessly sprayed herbicide that in turn causednumerous human health problem (such as high fever, diarrhea, vomitingand dermatological problems) and destruction of food and livestock. It is evident that the projects tasked to these companies did notconform to the stipulated ethical and social responsibilities of theworkers. Professional services are significant drivers for clientand customer relationship (Salazar, Husted, &amp Biehl, 2012).

Despitethe continued integration of code of ethics, many dispute itsusefulness. For instance, in the journalism profession it is arguedthat, code of ethics might impose increased limitation on ajournalist’s objectives of seeking truth. Tentatively, the ethicalconducts appears to simplify complex decisions, which in most casesis not true. The occurrence of an ethical dilemma can’t beaddressed by a code, since by definition dilemma is conflict thatarises between two or more issues. Like other rules applied in rulebased thinking, ethical codes are not efficient in balancing acts. Amore practical aspects is that code of ethics, are subject to beoutdated as soon as they are developed. Furthermore,Luegenbiehl(1983) believes that the code of ethics develop problems, rather thancreating solution for them. He presupposes that professionals rarelyconsolidate ethics when seeking guidance, where ethical guidelinesappear to be inconsistent (Luegenbiehl, 1983).As such, a tentativeimplementation of code of ethics may conflict the moral autonomyexpected by individuals.

Conclusively,conformance of code of conduct and social responsibility willhighlight a significant aspect of sound management practices inprojects management. As such, attuning an organization’scommitment to social responsibility signified its dedicated effortsin making the community a proffered environment for existence. Thecode of conduct will help regulate the actions of the employees,where a subsequent violation may result in punishment.

SECTIONB

Humanresource is the workforce of either an organization, economy orbusiness sector. It comprises of the human knowledge, motivation andskills of people. On the other hand, Procurement is the acquisitionof desired goods and services (Weele, Arjan, Van, 2010). From thisperspective, ethical issues in HR and procurement are a set ofprinciples that dictates the right conduct in the workforce andprocess of acquiring resources in an organization. Simply out,procurement is a process that involves several stages. Throughoutthese phases, a number of ethical issues in the procurement processare eminent with respect to human conduct regarding. Moreover, theworkforce environment is typified by different interests that may beat times conflicting.

HRand procurement projects are guided by a plan, which integratesfeatures of distinct characteristics for the plan to be feasible.

Features of Human Resource plan

  1. Well defined objectives

Theorganization should use its goals and objectives during planningstages to formulate the human resource objectives. This may compriseof the updating of the expertise, guarantee for better commitment anddevelopment of human resource (Weele, Arjan, Van, 2010).

  1. Determination of Human Resource needs

Theneeds and desires of human resource ought to be incorporated into theneeds of the organization (Salazar, Husted &amp Biehl, 2012). Thismeans that the process of recruitment, selection and training has tobe done in advance and promptly to facilitate its inclusion.

  1. Adjustment of demand and supply

Theneeds of the employees have to be planned in advance in order toaffect a proffered retention capability. This is aimed at reducingemployee turnover when undertaking future tasks.

  1. Creation of Preferred work environment

Inaddition to estimation and employment, human resource planning istasked to ensuring the availability of working conditions. Employeesare normally proactive when they are satisfied with workplaceconditions and management approach.

  1. Retention of manpower inventory

Thisis simply the inventory of the present manpower in the organization.The management should identify competent workforce that can take upfuture tasks within the organization.

Aspectsof the procurement plan, on the other hand, include

  1. Vendor Management

Vendormanagement offers external suppliers with a vendor registrationportal. It allows them to authorize the approved vendor status andrenewal of contracts. There is periodical award of tenders andprojects for better rating.

  1. Purchase requisition

Thisis a self-service application that enables employees to presentpurchase requests. Approved purchases motivate the procurementexecutive to place more tenders.

  1. Purchase items

Itallows unique procurement officer to trace changes in prices andquantity as from order to tender to contract.

  1. Tender management

Tendermanagement is aimed at evaluating and sourcing of bidder’sproposal. After commercial and technical evaluation, tender could beissued via order.

  1. Contract management

Itmanages how genuine a contract is and the subsequent information suchas performance, bank guarantee, and insurance. The handled aspectsinclude variety of contracts such as changes to contracts, extensionsto contracts and comprehensive contracts (Weele, Arjan, Van, 2010).

Additionalfeatures include order management, fulfillment tracking of delivery,master procurement plan, vendor claim for accounts payable.

Humanresource planning is necessary in that it ensures that there iscontinuous manpower that aids in assessment of current labor force,helps in hiring of competent personnel, identification of relevantskills required in the organization, rightful use of the resourcesand reduction of uncertainty. On the other hand, procurement planningis significant in that it enhances transparency, helps in making adecision on what to purchase, when and where to source it.Additionally, it helps the management to determine the eligibility oftheir expectations, provides a forum for the stakeholders to conducta forum, leads to formulation and determination of proper procurementstrategies, enables determination of the procurement duration andenables the assessment of the feasibility of a joint or splitprocurement.

Whatis Social Responaibility ?

Socialresponsibility is the effort in action to support the welfare andinterests of the society in the fields that include variousattributes namely

Corelabor standardsthis has helped in the singling out of important labor force rightsand principles in areas such as forced labor, childlabor, non-discrimination and equity, right to association andcollective bargaining.

Environmentalimpactthe effect that the process of procurement and further human resourcebrings to the environment needs to be evaluated first before thereprocesses take place. Negligence on them costs a lot.

Diversityof goalsgovernment organizations typically aim at empowering the economy.Consequently, the interest differs when it comes to private companieswhose interest is to broaden their market share in the economy.

Communityinvolvementswhen it comes to public organizations, the political bigheadsfrequently want to return the favor to those people who elected thenduring the polls. The case is different with private companies whoseinterest is geared the support these projects that are close to theirstakeholders.

Itis important to the face ethical issues head on. When confronted withsuch issues, the establishment of a social responsibility audits willidentify underperforming aspects. This can be reaslied theough theanalysis of key documents, assessment of the current state,communication of the audit results and finally the development ofstrategies to fill the gaps (Driscoll, Dawn Marie and Hoffman, W.Michael, 2002). It is unacceptable, however, to evade social andethical responsibility as it questions one`s integrity.

Sincethe activities undertaken may not be harmful to the society as awhole, it can sometimes be justified to do overlook the ethicsrequired in one`s conduct to accomplish the set task ahead of anindividual. This is also advocated for if it favors a larger numberof individuals thanthe ones whom it may harm.

CaseStudy

Unethicalpractices have been witnessed in the various developing countries.Developing countries have been subject to various unethical practicesthat have crippled it initiatives in realizing proffered economicrigidity. The construction sector in Nigeria is considered a problemsince it is typified by increased corruption, bribery, capital fight,environmental destruction, poor quality and dangerous practices toname a few. The unethical performance in Nigeria is consideredunethical practices since it violates numerous protection policiesthat have been created in support of a safer environment.Tentatively, the allocation of project to unqualified companiesjustifies the foreseen dangers that the construction company faces.

Evidently,the bribery practices oversee quality dispensation of work fromstructures to the overall environmental conformance. Although aviable legislative solution was created, it does not adequatelyaddress the unethical issues at hand. A robust policy should becreated inwhich the companies associated with such practices should not beallowed to undertake any project within the country. Tentatively,material used by the company should be surrendered to the regulatorybody. This would prevent any occurrence of accidents and unethicalpractices by the involved companies.

References

Chhabara,R. (2009). Trafigura– Toxic ethics.Retrieved from

http://www.ethicalcorp.com/communications-reporting/trafigura-%E2%80%93-toxic-ethics

Driscoll,D., Dawn, M., and Hoffman, Michael, W. (2002). EthicsMatters: How to Implement

ValueDriven Management.

Hynes,R. (2011). Topten Unethical Business Actions.Retrieved from

http://listverse.com/2011/09/13/top-10-unethical-business-actions/

Labuschagne,C., Brent, A. C., &amp Claasen, S. J. (2005). Environmental andsocial impact

considerationsfor sustainable project life cycle management in the processindustry. CorporateSocial Responsibility &amp Environmental Management,12(1),38-54.doi:10.1002/csr.076

Oyewobi,I., Oganiyu, B., Aoke, A., Ola-awo, W. (2011). Determinants ofUnethical

Performancein Nigerian Construction Industry. Journalof Sustainable Development4, (4) DOI:&nbsp10.5539/jsd.v4n4p175

Pells,D. L. (2012). Commitment to ethics and values can empower leaders ofteams,

projects,programs and organizations. PMWorld Today.pp. 1-7

Salazar,J., Husted, B., &ampBiehl, M. (2012). Thoughts on the Evaluation ofCorporate Social.

PerformanceThrough Projects. JournalOf Business Ethics,105(2),175 186.doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0957-z

Weele.A., &amp Van. (2010). Purchasingand Supply Chain Management: Analysis, strategy,

Planningand Practice(5thed.).

Luegenbiehl,Heinz C. &quotCodes of Ethics and the Moral Education ofEngineers&quot,&nbspBusinessand Professional Ethics Journal&nbsp2(1983): 41-61. Rpt. in&nbspEthicalIssues in Engineering&nbsp.Ed. Deborah G. Johnson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.137-154.