Evaluation of ADI-R

EVALUATION OF ADI-R 10

Evaluationof ADI-R

Nameof student

Nameof professor

Autismspectrumdisorderis a conditionthat is presentin 1 out of 500 children.Whendetectedearly,therapiesmay beappliedto ensurethatthechildrenleadgoodlives.There are variouswaysusedto detectthelevel of autism in children.One of thesemethodsis theAutism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Theapproachis a clinical diagnostictoolusedidentifying casesof autism spectrumdisorderin adultsandyoungchildren.ADI-R usesthebehavioral approachwhenidentifyingcasesof autism. Itfocuseson threemainelementsof behavior.Theseincludethequalityof socialinteraction,communicationandlanguageandtherepetitiveinterestsandbehaviorsthat are subjectto stereotype(Couteur et al., 2003). Theseelementscomprisethecomprehensivelifeof an individual.Theyreflectthewholelifeof a childandprovidetherequiredinformationto starta therapy.

ADI-Ris effectivewhenthechildrenoradultsunder studyare 18 yearsorolder.Thetoolfocuseson boththechildrenunder diagnosisandtheir caregivers. Thetoolusesstandardizedandsemi-structured interviewquestionaimedat elicitinginformationfrom thechildrenandtheir caregivers (Moss et al., 2007). TheADI-R uses93 itemsto studythethree componentsof behavior,thatis, qualityof socialinteractions,communicationandlanguageandstereotypedinterestsandbehaviors.Under thequalityof socialinteractions,thetooltestsbehaviorslike emotionsharing,thetendencyto seekhelp,abilityto getalong with otherchildren,andsocialsmiling. Under thecommunicationandlanguageplatform,thetoolassessestheuseof stereotypedutterances,thereversalof pronouns andlanguageusein thesocialplatform.Under restrictedandstereotypedinterests,thetoolidentifiesthemannerismsof thehandsandfingers,thepresenceunusualpreoccupationsandunusualsensoryreactionsandinterests(Couteur et al., 2003).

Inorderto scoretheentriesin thetool,theclinician relies on informationgivenby thecaregiver. Onlyinformationon currentbehaviorof thechildgetsconsiderationas relevant.However,somebehaviorsthat occurduring specifictimesandtheseare importantwhenmakingthescores.Forthetestto yielddesirableresults,thetooldividesthe93 questionsinto five parts.Thefirstpartcontainsten questions.Theserevolvearound gettinginformationon thechild’searlydevelopment.Thenextpartcontains41 questionsthat coverbothverbalandnon-verbal communication.Thenext17 questionscoverthesocialdevelopmentof thechild,andthenext13 questionscovertheinterestsandthebehaviorof thechild.Thelast14 questionsrevolvearound thegeneralbehaviorof thechild.

Thewholeprocedureof applyingADI-R is fullycompliantwith therelevantlegalprovisionsandfairness.To enhancethis,thetooltestsbehaviorsthat are appropriatefora particularagegroup.Childrenof differentageshavedifferentmodesof behavior.Anybehaviortestedin a childmust be appropriateto thechild’sage.In thispaper,I will workwith thepremisethattheAutism Diagnostic Interview-Revised providespsychometric propertiesfortheatricalearlydiagnosisof autism spectrumdisorderin youngchildren.

Literaturereview

TheADI-R providespsychometric testsfortheearlydiagnosisof autism spectrumdisorderin youngchildren.Accordingto Pillowsky, (2012) ADI-R providesvalidinformationwhenitapplicationis welladministeredin youngchildren.Itleadsto positiveresultsdue to theapplicationof awidescopewhenelicitingreactionsfrom thecaregivers andchildren.The93 questionshavecomprehensivecoverage from thetimethechildwasveryyoungto thecurrentconditionof their behavior.Theapproachmakesitveryrelevantandsuccessfulforadministeringpsychometric tests(Pillowsky et al., 2012).

Torbjornetal. (2013) discussesthelevel of validityandsuccessof Autism Diagnostic Interview-Review. Accordingto theauthors,thetoolhas an accuracyof 92% whenadministeredcorrectly.Thehighaccuracymakesthetoolappropriateforeffecting diagnosis,formaltreatment,andeducationalplanning.Thecomprehensiveapproachusedby thetoolenablesclinicians to havean overall overviewof thelifeof thechild.Theycan identifybehaviorsassociatedwith autistic tendencies.Theauthorsindicatethatthetoolcan recordboth thecurrentobservablebehaviorsin childrenas wellas behaviorsthat occurduring specifictimes.All theseare importantfora correctdiagnosis.Upon theexhaustionof the93 areasof inquiry,a clinician comesup with highaccurateinformationregardingthechild(Torbjorn et al., 2013).

Connollyetal. (2012) outlinesthestrengthsof ADI-R. Accordingto theauthors,thestrengthof thetoolis its abilityto testthethree componentsof behaviorthat geta comprehensiveoverviewof a child’slife.Accordingto them, socialinteractions,language,communication, stereotyped interests, andbehaviorhavetheabilityto definethelifeof everyindividual.Thetoolappliesboth observational methodsandtheinformationderivedfrom thecaregivers. Theapproachis moreof a triangulation methodthat enablesthetoolto havehighaccuracylevels.

Lordet al. (2013) exploretheappropriatenessof usingADI-R in diagnosing autism in youngchildren.Theauthorsconductedresearchon 51 autistic childrenand41 non-autistic children.Thestudyinvolvedtheapplicationof thetoolin determiningwhetherthechildrensufferedfrom autism. Since theresearchers knewtheconditionsof thechildren,itwaseasyto concludewhetherthetoolwasaccurateornot. Upon its application,thetoolgavea correctdiagnosisof 50 children.Onlyone childof all theothers whowentthrough thetestrecordednegativeresults.TheauthorsconcludedthatADI-R is an appropriatetoolforautism diagnosisdue to its highaccuracy.Thestudysupportsthethesisstatementthat regardsADI-R as themostappropriatepsychometric toolfordiagnosing autism spectrumdisorderin youngchildren.

Whenconductingthestudy,severalassumptionsare applicable.First,itis assumedthattheclinician administeringthetestis qualifiedto usethetool.Theoutcomeof theresultsis highlydependenton thecompetenceof theclinician. Second,itis assumedthatthecurrentbehavioris an indicationof theactualbehaviorof thechild.Thefuturebehaviorof thechildgetsregardas inferencethat can be explainedn thebasisof thecurrentbehavior.Thecurrentbehavioris usedto projecttherequiredoutcomes.Therefore,itis, takenas theactualbehaviorof thechild(Bras, 2014).

Discussion

TheADI-R operatesunder somepredeterminedfeaturesthat enableitto givethemostappropriateresults.Thefeaturesof thistoolare relevantto theareasin which itperformsits inquiries.First,thetoolmust havestandardization.Itmeansthepresenceof parameters that makethetooluniformin all themeasurements.Theoutcomeof theresultscan thusbegeneralized.All theADI-R toolsfollowthesamepatternof inquiry.Second,thetoolmust upholdthevalidity.Validityrepresentsthepotential of a toolto evaluatewhatitwasintendedto measure.Accordingto theAmerican Psychologists Association, theADI-R must be validin termsof content, constructandcriteria(Tsuchiya et al., 2013). TheAssociation alsorecommendstheuseof severalteststo ascertainthevalidityof thetool.ADI-R must alsobe reliable.Thetoolshould not haveinstancesof extremefluctuationsin themeasurementof differentbehavioral tendenciesin children(Bildt et al., 2014).

Whenusingthetool,a setof ethicalconsiderationsneedsapplication.First,theinstrumentschosenmust be valid.Thetoolshould not be setto purposeuntil its validitygetsascertained.Secondly,thecorrectinformationto can getfedinto themeasurementscalesneedscollection.Theevaluator should not collectinformationthat is not relevantto themeasurements.Informationthat is not relevantorone that intimidatesthecaregiver needsavoidance.Thetoolrightsneedevaluation. Auser must getpermissionfrom thepublishersbefore puttingthetoolpurpose.

Inmy evaluation, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised involvedtheuseof technology. Thetoolitself is a reflectionof theapplicationof methodsrefinedto givebetterresults.In theassessment,theapproachenhancedbetterresults,andthisincreasedits validity(Kim et al., 2013). Thescoresrangefrom 1to9 wherebythedifferentscoresrepresentvariousconditionsin thechildren.An algorithm helpsin decoding theinformationderivedfrom thechildren.Thealgorithm recordsinformationbased on relevanceto thequestionsaskedduring theinterview(Hus andLord, 2013).

Conclusion

Myresearchthesisreceiveda lotof supportfrom theliteratureI reviewed.TheliteraturereiteratedthatADI-R is indeedappropriateforpsychometric testsrelatingto autism spectrumdisorderin youngchildren.Theresultsare especiallyhighlyaccuratein childrenbelow theageof four years.TheADI-R testsshould onlytesttheappropriateandrequiredinformation.Ifthisrulegetscontravened,thevalidityof thetoolbecomesquestionable(Kim andLord, 2011). Asseenearlier,the93 questionstestdifferentareas.Theseareasintendto givespecificanswers.Ifthequestionsgetchanged,anegativeeffecton thescoreswill result.Theinformationfedinto thealgorithm will be minimaldue to lackof relevanceof answersto thequestions.Iftheapplicationof thetestoccursin severaltests,a lotof fluctuationswill occurthere will be nouniformityin themodeof interviewing.Thereliabilityof thetoolwill thusbe in question(Kim andHus, 2012).

Theindicesin theresearchrepresenta highvalue.Thehighaccuracyis out of thehighvalidityof thetool.Whenthetoolis usedin thechildrenbelow theagefour years,theresultsare highlyaccurate(Pillowsky et al., 2012). Thetoolwasimperativein my research,anditledto qualityresultsthat are reliable.Thetoolusesa comprehensivemethodof interviewingchildren.The93 areasof inquiryprovidedtherelevantinformation.Thesequestionsleadto theproductionof qualityresults.Theprojectwasin fullsupportof thethesisstatement.Thereviewof theavailablematerialsshowsthattheAutism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is agoodmethodof gettingthepsychometric measurementsforautism spectrumdisorder.

References

Bildt,A., Oosterling, I., Lang, N., Kuijper, S., Dekker, V., Sytema, S.,Jonge, M. (2013). How to Use the ADI-R for Classifying AutismSpectrum Disorders? Psychometric Properties of Criteria from theLiterature in 1,204 Dutch Children. Journalof Autism and Developmental Disorders,2280-2294.

Bras,J. (2014). Psychometricproperties of assessment instruments for autism spectrum disorder: asystematic review of Brazilian studies. JornalBrasileiro de Psiquiatria.63(2),45-67.Connolly,J., Glessner, J., &amp Hakonarson, H. (2012). A Genome-WideAssociation Study of Autism Incorporating Autism DiagnosticInterview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and SocialResponsiveness Scale. ChildDevelopment,84 (1),17-33.

Hus,V., &amp Lord, C. (2013). Effects of child characteristics on theAutism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Implications for use of scoresas a measure of ASD severity. Journalof autism and developmental disorders,43(2),371-381.

Falkmer,Torbjörn, Katie Anderson, Marita Falkmer, and Chiara Horlin.&quotDiagnostic Procedures in Autism Spectrum Disorders: ASystematic Literature Review.&quot EuropeanChild &amp Adolescent Psychiatry22.6 (2013): 329-40. Web.

Kim,S. H., &amp Lord, C. (2011). Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised.In Encyclopediaof Clinical Neuropsychology.Springer: New York.

Kim,S. H., Thurm, A., Shumway, S., &amp Lord, C. (2013). Multisite studyof new autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) algorithms fortoddlers and young preschoolers. Journalof autism and developmental disorders,43(7),1527-1538.

Kim,S. H., &amp Lord, C. (2012). New autism diagnostic interview-revisedalgorithms for toddlers and young preschoolers from 12 to 47 monthsof age. Journalof autism and developmental disorders,42(1),82-93.

Lord,C., Rutter, M., &amp Le Couteur, A. (2003). Autism DiagnosticInterview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview forcaregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmentaldisorders. Journalof autism and developmental disorders,24(5),659-685.

Lord,C., Storoschuk, S., Rutter, M., &amp Pickles, A. (2013). Using theADI-R to diagnose autism in preschool children. InfantMental Health Journal,14 (3),234-252.

Moss,J., Magiati, I., Charman, T., &amp Howlin, P. (2007). Stability ofthe Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised from Pre-School toElementary School Age in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.Journalof Autism and Developmental Disorders,38,1081-1091.

Pilowsky,T. The Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised and the Childhood AutismRating Scale: Differences Between Diagnostic Systems and ComparisonBetween Genders. Journalof Autism and Developmental Disorders,28(2),10-10.

Tsuchiya,K. J., Matsumoto, K., Yagi, A., Inada, N., Kuroda, M., Inokuchi, E.,&amp Takei, N. (2013). Reliability and validity of autism diagnosticinterview-revised, Japanese version. Journalof autism and developmental disorders,43(3),643-662.