File History Mod 6


FileHistory Mod 6




JeanRouch`s documentary film career started in West Africa. He wasemployed as a civil engineer during the Second World War where hesupervised road construction. He shot his first documentary film whenhe was walking along Niger River with a 16mm Howell camera. This wasan original style that he developed after his three-legged stand forsupporting his camera fell into the river (Browne, 2012). The primaryobjectives of Rouch as an ethnographic filmmaker were to producefilms that would reach a large group of people and change the world.Rouch documented the people’s way of life and how poverty affectedtheir lifestyles. In addition, he wanted to produce films that willinspire other filmmakers.

Rouch`sinfluence was significant on the Africans and he even introduced thefilm technology that helped train them. He was innovative and appliedhis thoughts and feeling to communicate his ideas. Rouch observed thecultures and rituals of the Africans and made documentary movies.These were the techniques that he used and they made his films famous(Browne, 2012). Some of documentary films were regarded as the bestprofound that explored the views of the Africans on colonial world.


Duringthe late 1950s a group of filmmakers in America decided to change thedocumentary film by advancing the camera technology in order tocapture real life activities in a more spontaneous manner (Browne,2012). Filmmakers started to use mobile equipments that were lighterand required a smaller number of crews. This slowly led to therejection of the traditional conceptions whereby the structure andscript changed. The development of Direct Cinema allowed movie makersto track the development of a situation bit-by-bit. This had a greatinfluence in the film industry. The American documentary makersadopted this style because it enabled them to use lighter filmingequipments and they would also get closer to the subjects. Thisallowed them to make their films more easily. The other reason thatmade the documentary makers to use this style is because it allowedthem to film their movies without being interrupted with issues ofediting or narrating. This technology development influenced theirfilms to greater extents. For instance, the films were more genuineand truthful. I was also hard to change certain parts of the movie(Browne, 2012).


Thetwo prominent trends in avant-grade filmmaking include theexperimental narrative and the lyrical film. Experimental narrativesare films that that do not follow the rules of the traditional movie.They analyze the medium only. They are referred to as avant becausethey are independent, political and personal. Some distinguishingfeatures are that characters are not mandatory in the film because itis not a must to tell a story (Browne, 2012). On the other hand,Lyrical films are produced having musical sounds. In contrast to theexperimental narrative firms, lyrical films have characters and thereis a message. Personal views are expressed in a lyrical film. Theytry to express a person`s emotion and feeling directly withoutapplying any narrative structure. Unlike the Lyrical films that usestexture, reflection, light, music and dance, the extent to whichthese elements are applied in an experimental narrative movie isinfinite. The purposes for these films are to allow creativityfreedom and betterment, personal and social expression (Browne,2012). One of the greatest benefits is that it allows individuals tobe artists in their own way.


Studiesargue that the 1960s was one of the most controversial eras in theAmerican history. It was a decade that reflected tremendous socialchanges, fun, change of cultural values and events, tragedies, deathsand advancements (Browne, 2012). For instance, the assassination ofPresident John Kennedy, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and introduction ofthe first television broadcast in color and the introduction of twistdance and miniskirts among others. There were numerous notable andnotorious qualities that characterized the American underground filmduring this period. For instance, the Hollywood was experiencing adecline due to the cultural and political developments that changedthe society. Most people referred to it as irrelevant and oldfashioned. It was forced to cut down costs and through partneringwith foreign producers it was back on track leading to completion andmaking of more challenging films (Browne, 2012). The Europeangovernment funded their films leading to success of the box-offices. The notable feature is that the innovation and creativity of thesemovies enabled cinema to be recognized as an art. The notoriousfeatures include financial difficulties, British influence and studiotake over’s that affected the film industry. Further, movieaudiences declined as a result of television dominance.


DespiteHollywood experiencing some financial distress during the 1970s, itlater achieved a high creative point in the firm industry. There arenumerous important economic, social and industrial factors that ledto the emergence of the New Hollywood during this period (Browne,2012). These factors include the civil rights movement, changinggender roles, freedom of love and drug abuse had an impact on the NewHollywood. In addition, Hollywood focused mainly or youth orientedpictures and of high quality. Technology was also another factor forthe emergence of New Hollywood. The causes of the industry-widerecession of 1969 to 1970 were the changes in politics, economy,technology and culture. This occurred after the World War 11. Thesefactors affected the Hollywood and as a result it was faced with theworst crises ever (Browne, 2012). The Hollywood studios becomebankrupt. This changed the film industry and the emergence of the NewHollywood was enhanced through innovations and certain experiments.The new audiences that the majors targeted were those who neededsimple entertainments because most of the pictures were not original.Majority of the studios invested in certain technologies because theydid not want to take greater risks.


TheEuropean art cinema is a kind a cinema that deals with cinematicpractices that are produced outside the cinema systems. Europeanfilms are unique in the way they are narrated and presented. Thequality produced is affordable by low income earners (Browne, 2012).The European cinemas contained certain erotic scenes that made theAmerican audiences regard these art cinemas as sex films. Studiesrevealed that the art cinema was not competing with Hollywood. TheEuropean art cinemas and Hollywood films are far much apart. Most ofthe European films are considered art films because they have theirown way of narrating the stories. The narration and stylistictechniques that art cinema uses is that there are no heroes in theirfilms. This means that there are no seamless causes and effects intheir narration. In addition, behaviors of the characters arecontingent and directed towards achieving the set goals (Browne,2012). They reach a small number of people as compared to Hollywoodmovies. Research shows that over 75% of all the movies shown incinemas in Europe, they are products of Hollywood. This is because itoffers the best in terms of entertainment.


Inorder to comprehend the evolution of the Hollywood studio systems,there is need to elaborate on the earlier development. During theclassical period, the studio system was factory based whereproduction and distribution took place (Browne, 2012). Throughmergers and acquisition, the film industry evolved into a matureoligopoly in 1930s. It was now managed by big studios in Hollywoodincluding Warner Bros, Paramount and 20thCentury Fox among others. These studios distributed the filmsworldwide. The Hollywood experienced a decline during World War 11.The political, economic, social and industrial factors had a greatimpact on Hollywood that made it declared bankrupt. Advancement intechnology led to the emergence of the New Hollywood (Browne, 2012).The introduction of television was another problem that led to lowturn outs in cinemas. The New Hollywood focused on the production ofhigh quality and youth related pictures that gradually increased thenumber of moviegoers. The important blockbusters of the periodinclude high concept entertainment that involved nationwidecampaigns. In addition high speed and cost were also importantblockbusters.


BothSteven Spielberg and Martin Scorsese are movie directors, producersas well as screen writers. They have played a major role in theHollywood film industry. Some refer to them as influential moviemakers who have covered numerous themes and genres. The approaches ofthese producers differ in a numbers of aspects in regard to studiofilmmaking (Browne, 2012). Steven Spielberg`s argues that his mostfavorite step during filmmaking is photochemistry that occurs betweenimagination and picture that is help, folded and finally projectedfor audience to see. Further, he says that when he moves close tothe picture it appears like an art that was not carefully done, butmoving further to it is like photorealistic image. Spielberg thinksthat the analogue approach to studio filmmaking is the best and hewill stick to that. On the other hand, Scorsese sees it magical andinteresting when cutting a shot during filmmaking. He loves editingand says that its filmmaking is magical because when one shot is cutand the camera is moving, more imaginary shots are developed (Browne,2012). The New Hollywood led to introduction of a new generation thatwas trained. The two producers were well trained and they assisted inestablishing existing techniques and genres. The other similarity isthat their films were both commercially successful as well acclaimed.


Browne,R. B., (2012).&nbspDefiningconcise guide to United States popular culture.Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.