Running head: GLOBALIZATION
is the nationalistic and opening of local standpoint to a wideroutlook of an interdependent and interconnected world with freedom totransfer of goods, capital, and services crosswise nationalresources. However, it does not comprise the unhampered progress oflabor and, as recommended by some economic researchers, may harmyoung or weak economies if implemented haphazardly. Due toglobalization, an individual in any part of the world can be able totravel from a particular culture to the other through notable mediasuch as the Internet, books, and social media among others. In thefield of economics, globalization can be regarded as the way in whichproducts, prices, rates and wages will be similar.
Ofrecent, the world is experiencing progress and advancementfinancially, economically, trade wise, and communicationsintegrations. has become an essential part in thedevelopment of this countries, regions and democracies among othersectors across the globe. Mainly promoted by the raised levels oftechnological development. It is notable that, globalization has hadimpacts such as cross-cultural amalgamation, interchange of knowledgein several fields, which include mental health. As a result ofglobalization, mental health issues have emerged around the world andamong populations. According to (WHO) the world health organization,about a 3rd of the adult people and a small portion of childrenaround the world suffer from mental disorders such as anxiety,depression, and schizophrenia. Other problems such as mentalillnesses and mental instabilities are being manifested majorly inurban areas some organizations argue that the growing number isrelated to stress factors. Basing on the premise that, good health isa central frame in the development as well as growth of any nation.In addition, most people are moving to urban areas in search of reallife only to find the inevitable. It is notable that, there have beena lot of arguments as well as counter-arguments on whetherglobalization has had an impact on mental health. Especiallyresulting from the supercharged rate of changes, which is takingplace in the society (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra, 2010)?
UrbanizationEffects on Family Structure and Support
Withthe result of globalization, countries are advancing to industrialdevelopments. However, there are some countries that have been ableto offer resources and others are useful for manufacturing andconsumption. The concept of production means that, higher numbers ofindividuals are currently moving from the rural to urban settings.Thus, more than 50% of the world population lives in urban areas, andthis is projected to increase going forward. Consequently, increasedlevels of urbanization resulted in overcrowding, giving rise to urbanghettos both the mixed race of different people with differentcultural backgrounds. Intermarriages, with women witnessing severaltypes of abuses, and the youth of ages 10-20 years suffering neglect,labor abuse and exposed to all sorts of antisocial behaviors as seenin major cities such as Jakarta, Nairobi, Haiti among others (Cheema,Kalra &Bhugra, 2010). Overcrowding has adverse effects on humanbeings resulting in disorganization, violence among other pathologylinked with congested cities. Urbanization has an effect on humanhealth due to raised level of social isolation, thus resulting inincreased cases of mental disorders. Due to the globalization ofvarious cultures as well as increased acceptance of viewpoints,family units are rapidly being affected. For instance, in India,family systems once well united are disappearing quickly, as childrenmove out early enough in search for education and jobs after that.Even within joint families, interaction is significantly decreasingdue to changes taking place in various spheres of life (Cheema, Kalra&Bhugra, 2010). For example, family social life is currentlybeing taken over by TVs, computer facilities among others. This facthas resulted to raised stress levels due which negatively affectfamily settings.
Withthe impact of globalization in the past decades, acceleration ofeconomic, social, and political transformation has grown sequentiallywith rapid changes in diverse sectors of the society. Substantiallyaffected the living standards, political freedom, and healthconditions. More specifically globalization has affected profoundlyon the mental health conditions of urban dwellers. Sharp increases inincome disparity across states and urban areas have fueled socialrelations and community participation (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra,2010). Changes caused by globalization in the labor market hasinfluenced job security and unemployment something that has affectedthe lives of many workers and families living in urban areas.Environmental and urban changes have had momentous effects on thequality of life of communities in cities and towns, with particularallusion to those of low socioeconomic status. Such changes likethis, in health and social sectors, have an impact on the operationsof the First Choice Counseling right from the youth, women, men, andthe children.
Atthe outset, swift economic and social changes have raised the degreeof uncertainties among many residents living in urban centers.Nonetheless, the rising instability disproportionately affectspopulation that has capacity and prowess to adjust to the newenvironment. The ensuing psychosocial disruption and stress of socialrelations has had adverse effects on health and health behaviors.Psychological elements reconcile the rapidly changes in economic andsocial sphere fueled by globalization and health related in twosignificant ways. On the macro level, the economic changes which hasunfavorably affected the majority of the individuals living in urbanareas. More specifically the income inequality has changed Heath viapersonal perceptions of place in the larger social hierarchy creatingnegative emotions that are translated into their body into poorerhealth through psycho-neuron-endocrine immunologic mechanisms andother self-destructive behaviors such as drug abuse and stress(Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra, 2010).
Importantlyideas of relative position and negative emotions are also passed onto individuals, especially the youth with antisocial behaviors suchas traffic accidents, less social cohesion, and reduced civicparticipation. is connected to the weakening ofenvironmental regulations because of increased imbalances betweencivil society and business. Policies that govern water, noise, andair pollution, and crowding and release of toxic substancesespecially in urban areas have a powerful impact on the averagecommunities. It is important to state that physical environmentsubstantially influences physical and psychological well-being.Various research studies have indicated that environmental,geographic and community conditions are predictors of health behaviorand social disorganization (Cheema, Kalra &Bhugra, 2010).
Dueto globalization, environments exposed people to chronic stress andunhealthy conditions with several chronic diseases due to the airdangerous air inhaled. More specifically, lower socio-economic groupsfind it extremely difficult to cope with harsher environments thatare rife with stressful events and severe labor coupled with littlepay. Therefore, agencies should mainly focus on offering therapy toindividuals living in urban areas aged 10-20. Because, they aresusceptible to environmental effects that lead to physical and mentalinstabilities, with particular reference to anxiety and depression.
Thedelivery for quality therapy is particularly difficult due toinstitutional influences that shape the nature of services for adifferent individual from diverse ethnic group and races. Forexample, cultural and ethnic elements ought to be considered inpsychosocial therapy treatment on many grounds (Sue, Gordon &Lauren, 2014). Incorporating the cultural factor in psychotherapytreatment is important because it is also a form of the culturalphenomenon that serves a crucial role in the therapy process. In thisprocess, there are ethical dilemmas that emerge and that call for aparticular attention and approach to achieve the intended goal of thetherapy. First, the cultural and ethnic concepts of patients mayclash with the mainstream norms and values in the field ofpsychology. These values may be the guiding factors and when they areignored, psychological treatment can cause harm. The causes oftreatment disparities are complex, are pegged on contemporary andhistorical inequities, and entail numerous participants at differentlevels (Sue, Gordon & Lauren, 2014).
Inaddition, different theoretical orientations have diverseinterpretation and application of therapeutic boundaries. It showsthe extent to which a health professional or psychologists for thatmatter can intervene and relate with the patients basing on the levelof culture of the patient permits. In such a case, we are forced todismantle particular rigid boundaries to be in a position to helpvarious groups of an individual. Affecting the limit ofconfidentiality and the therapeutic approach that a psychologist canemploy. has made it extremely difficult for cliniciansto maintain therapeutic neutrality and maintain boundaries as per therecommendation (Zur, 2013).
Therefore,globalization has the power to transform a social-centric societyinto an ego-centric one, which may breed many forms of mentaldisorders and instabilities. With the increased levels of migrationaround the globe, social isolation has and continues to grow, and aninherent social support system has continued to diminish within thecommunity and family setup. First Choice Counseling offers therapy tomentally ill and individual with mental disorders living in urbanareas.
However,with the levels of distress due to changing identities, increasinginequalities and acculturation, the rates of mental illness andinstabilities are increasing in urban areas. For field placementagency engaged in therapy for the mentally unstable, it is importantto recognize that understanding how globalization lead to mentalillness to be in a position to align mitigation measures andtreatment procedures accordingly.
Bhugra,Dand Mastrogianni, A. (2003). Globalisation and mental disorders.British Journal of Psychistry. Retrieved from:http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/184/1/10
Cheema,F.,Kalra, G. and Bhugra, D. (2010).Globalisation and Mental Health:Context and Controversies. Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric SocietyVo. 7 No. 2. Retrieved from:ww.jpps.com.pk/display_articles.asp?d=250&p=art
Sue,S., N., Gordon C. N., and Lauren K. B. (2014). The Case forCultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. NationalInstitute of Health. Retrieved from:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2793275/
Zur,O.(2013). TherapeuticBoundaries and Dual Relationships in Rural Practice: Ethical,Clinical and Standard of Care Considerations.ZurInstitute, Sonoma, CA.Retrieved from:http://www.marshall.edu/jrcp/9_1_zur.htm