HPV VACCINE DEVELOPMENT 10
Humanpapillomavirus (HPV) is a dangerous vector that affects human beings.It thrives in keratinocytes found in mucous and skin membranes. HPVinfectivities are subclinical hence, they do not show physicalsymptoms. Nonetheless, some patients experience clinical infectionsthat result from conditions such as warts or cancers of the anus,cervix, oropharynx, vagina, vulva and penis. Researchers claim thatHPV18 alone causes 70% of all known cervical cancers. In addition,between 30% and 40% of HPV cancer cases affect the nether region asthey result from sexual contact. Further studies have proven that HPVinfections often develop into invasive cancer or precancerouslesions. As a precaution to limit spread of HPV associated diseases,healthcare experts have developed vaccines that limit vulnerabilityof susceptible patient to the condition (Current and Future HPVVaccines: Promise and Challenge, 2006).
ProgramLearning Outcomes (PO)
TheHPV vaccine course is essential, as it will help vulnerable personsto the disease seek medical assistance at the appropriate time. TheWorld Health Organization asserts that the disease ranks as thesecond principal cause women in the entire world. In addition, theUnited States Bureau of Statistics claims that both cervix and uteruscancers are the third largest causes of death in the United States.On the same note, cervical cancer ranks as the fourteenth biggestcause of death in the world (Borruto & De, 2012). In 1996, 49,000patients succumbed to the malady while 15,700 individuals acquiredthe virus. On the contrary, 4,030 persons succumbed to the viralinfection while 12,340 persons caught the infection during the sameyear. The analyzed data indicates the condition affects the Hispanicsmost. The drastic reduction of new infections has resulted from easyaccessibility of HPV vaccine (Monsonego, 2006).
Preventionis better than cure. The high prevalence of the HPV has necessitatedthe development of immunization programs that reduces the risk of newinfections substantially. There are above 20 million affected by theproblem in the United States alone, but the patients have notrealized that they are suffering from the illness because it isasymptomatic, which implies that the condition does not haveconspicuous symptoms. Transmission can occur in a variety of waysincluding coitus and contact with bodily, genital skin and mucousmembranes of a partner suffering from the sickness. The transmissionalso occurs through the skin, anal, oral and vaginal contact. Thismakes t imperative for every sexually active individual to take theHPV immunization (Mehta & Sharma, 2011).
Accordingto the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), HPVimmunization is administered in a series of three shots within sixmonths. The appropriate age to administer the dose for the first timeis between eleven and twelve years. Nevertheless, women who are below26 years can still undergo vaccination (CDC, 2011). Similarly, menbelow 21 years are also eligible for the immunization process. On thesame note, the treatment is essential for homosexuals as well asindividuals with weak immune systems, such as HIV/AIDS patients.
Bythe completion of this module, you will be able to:
M1.1 Acquire HPV knowledge and information, as well as allied cancers
M1.2 Get general understanding of HPV contagion, cancers associated with the virus and different types of the HPV
M1.3 Establish risk factors associated with the cervical cancers
M1.4 Provide comprehensive information that can assist
M1.5 Inform parents about appropriate places they should take their children for vaccination
M1.6 Educate the readers on suitable methods of HPV testing
Prevalenceof HPV associated Cancers
HPVexists in more than 100 varieties. Approximately 40 strains targetthe genital region, and thirteen of the viruses may lead to cancer.Borruto and De (2012) that type six and 11virus strains cause genitalwarts while category 16 and 18 cause cancerous infections. Theauthors further note that the pathogens cause 35% penile, 90%cervical, 50% vulvar and 90% anal/rectal. Over 12,000 men also sufferoropharyngeal cancers that are caused by the virus (Current andFuture HPV Vaccines: Promise and Challenge, 2006).
Technologyrequired for administering HPV Vaccine
Thetreatment exists in many forms, but Gardasil and Cervarix are themost common. The central technology needed for its storage andtransportation is cooling systems. Vaccines are supposed to be storedat very low temperatures to maintain their feasibility. In addition,sterilization technology is required in abundance since the used kitsare recycled (Strople & Ottani, 2006).
TheGoals of the course
Thebasic intention of the curriculum is to enhance awareness related toHPV attributed cancers and infections through awareness, implementingboth secondary and primary preventive precautions and educating thepublic on efficient control techniques they can use to suppress newinfectivity. Second, the course intends to encourage both men andwomen to embrace HPV immunization strategies. Finally, the tutorialenlightens women on the benefits of taking regular pap tests as itmakes it possible to detect cancer at its early stage.
Theprogram is designed in a way that it will empower vulnerable peopleto make healthy and smart behavior options that will not expose themto HPV contagion. Second, it provides vulnerable persons withvaluable information that can help them to avoid new infections usingsimple health care tips such as immunization and adopting a healthylifestyle. Third, the course recommends occasional testing, which canassist individuals to detect viral infections before they deteriorateto untreatable level. Finally, it provides information on potentialpatients regarding places they can find free tests and treatment onall HPV-related contagions (Huston, 2013).
TheHPV vaccine course is valuable as it provides essential strategiesthat an individual can implement to either suppress new HPV infectionor treat conditions that exist. Community health care nurses canincorporate treatment strategies recommended in the program throughconducting occasional seminars in the society. Huston (2013)recommends that nurses should familiarize with the latest innovationssuch as information technology that provides a powerful interactiontool. A healthcare professional from a remote part of the world canseek assistance from other experts across the world via the internet.
Second,nurses should learn the advantages of HPV vaccination and itsadministration methods. In my view, communities that are highlyaffected by HPV infections might have few community health carenurses that are informed about the condition. Besides, the nursesshould advocate the local governments and other health care industryprovider establish a special clinic that would offer free andvoluntary counseling services to vulnerable patients. Presently, myobjective as a community nurse is educating the youths regarding thebenefits of regular tests even when they are not feeling sick. I planto achieve the ambition through contributing regularly to blog posts,newspaper articles, public talk shows and engaging with the youths onsocial media. I have established a fan page where people worriedabout their health conditions can contact me.
Accordingto the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)(2013), a big percentage of youths in the United States arevulnerable to the disease because they are not vaccinated. My futuregoals, as a community health nurse, will be to ensure that everyoneunderstands the treatment significance. In my view, the followingfactors are the main obstructions to efficient community immunization(CDC, 2013).
Formany years, a misconception that HPV vaccine is suitable for olderadults exists. Besides, the knowledge gap concerning the bestapproach to address the problem is another major issue. I willdedicate my career towards learning about the disease so that I caninstruct my patients correctly. Besides, I will recruit a team ofself-motivated nurses to help me accomplish my ambition of reachingout to all the patients. I have also realized that HPV treatment ismainly provided to the elderly persons. I will ensure to change thetrend of research indicates that the medication is more effectivewhen administered to the youths.
Parentsare also concerned that their children might be too young, or theymight suffer from adverse effects. Of course, all parents givepriority to the safety of their children, but I will convince parentsthat the treatment is safe and indispensable for their children tolive a healthy lifestyle (Neeraja, 2011).
Somefinancially disadvantaged patients fear that the cost of themedication might be too high for them. However, some publicinstitutions and non-governmental organizations provide the servicefree of charge. I believe lack of comprehensive and reliableinformation on potential in the right places to look for the servicehas also discouraged many people from using the service (Current andFuture HPV Vaccines: Promise and Challenge, 2006). In the recentpast, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased the number ofpeople who are covered by the insurance service massively. I willencourage youths to register with the program so that they can accesslow-cost health care services (Neeraja, 2011).
ConcernRegarding the Online Courses
Previously,I assumed online courses are inefficient since one does not meet thetutor face to face. Nevertheless, after accomplishing the program, Ihave discovered that internet courses are even more comprehensivethan attending brick and mortar classrooms. One of the significantlessons I realized after when taking online courses is that anindividual develops self-discipline automatically. I had to study,complete assignments and attend classes on time despite that I had noone physically monitoring my activities (Current and Future HPVVaccines: Promise and Challenge, 2006).
Onthe same note, I have realized that online courses are cheaper andmore time efficient than live classes. I could just wake up tenminutes before my class time, as I only needed five minutes to settleon my desk and connect with the remote classroom. I also realizedthat students across the globe are can share information easilythrough the internet. My classmates were students from differentparts of the world. We shared experiences, government effort andcommunity perception towards HPV immunization across the world, whichsignificantly enlightened us on me on crucial tips I can apply in mylocal state to make a difference (Current and Future HPV Vaccines:Promise and Challenge, 2006).
Finally,I previously thought that attending a live class is important, as itwould provide me with an opportunity to make new friends. I despisedonline courses because I thought they would deny me an opportunity toexpand my friends’ network. Nonetheless, the misperception haschanged now because I have realized that the inception of socialmedia and internet connection has significantly improvedinterconnection of people across the world.
Borruto,F., & De, R. M. (2012). HPVand cervical cancer: Achievements in prevention and future prospects.
Bosch,F., Qiao, Y., & Castellsague, X. (2006). The epidemiology ofhuman papillomavirus infection and its association with cervicalcancer. InternationalJournal of Gynecology and Obstetrics,94(1),8-21. Retrieved fromhttp://screening.iarc.fr/doc/HPV%20supplement%20-%20chapter%2002.pdf
CDC(2011). Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity. Retrieved from
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Currentand Future HPV Vaccines: Promise and Challenge, (2006). InternationalAgency for Research on cancer,Web. Retrieved on 26 March 2015 fromhttp://screening.iarc.fr/doc/PATH_HPV_vaccines-whitepaper_final.pdf
Huston,C., (May 31, 2013), The Impact of Emerging Technology on NursingCare: Warp Speed Ahead, OJIN:The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing18(2): Manuscript 1.
Mehta,P., & Sharma, M. (2011). Predictors of HPV Vaccine in CollegeMen. Journalof Community Medicine & Health Education,1(2),1-5. Retrieved from http://www.omicsonline.org/JCMHE/JCMHE-1-111.pdf
Monsonego,J. (2006). Emergingissues on HPV infections: From science to practice 35 tables.
Neeraja,K. P. (2011). Textbookof communication and education technology for nurses.New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. Medical Publishers.
Strople,B. & Ottani, P. (2006). Can Technology Improve Internship Report?What the Research Reveals [Electronic version]. Journalof Professional Nursing, 197-204.