INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONS AND MANAGEMENT 7
Introductionto Organizations and Management
Introductionto Organizations and Management
Employeemotivation has been one of the most explored concepts in thecontemporary human society. This may emanate from the recognition ofthe link or connection that exists between the concept andproductivity of employees in both the long-term and short-term. Theterm “motivation” may underline a set of external and internalfactors that trigger energy and desire in individuals to bepersistently interested, as well as committed to a subject, role orjob, so as to exert a continuous in the achievement of the set goalsor objectives. More often than not, it is deemed much moreappropriate to have intrinsic motivation as it means that theemployees would take pleasure in accomplishing particular tasks andwould be less concerned about the external rewards pertaining to thesame.
Thereare varied reasons why my interest was piqued to the term. However,top among them was the implications that it has on employeeproductivity, as well as that of the organizations or firms, as aconsequence. There are different reasons why motivation comes inhandy in the organizations. First, motivation enhances the employees’efficiency levels and puts the human resources into action. It goeswithout saying that every activity or function necessitates that thebusiness entity provides human and financial resources so that thegoals can be accomplished (Fargus,2000).Having employees physically would not be sufficient to manage them,rather it is necessary that the company taps into their wish anddesire to be where they actually are. Scholars note that motivatedemployees have high performance, which leads to increasedproductivity and a reduction of the cost of operations (Frey,2002).
Onthe same note, motivation results in workforce stability, which iscrucial as far as the goodwill and reputation is concerned. Foremployees to remain loyal, it is imperative that they get the ideathat they are valued by the organization and that they are part ofthe same. It is noteworthy that the longer individuals work in aparticular business entity, the higher their levels of experience(Bruce,2003).In instances where individuals are willing to work for particularorganizations for long periods of time and never see the company as astep of a staircase, the turnover of the company would be reduced,with the reputation of the business entity being enhanced.
Further,motivated individuals would not resists modification or changes thatare undertaken in the organization. It is well acknowledged thatcompanies or business entities operate in dynamic environments wherethey are required to modify themselves so as to remain competitive inboth the short-term and long-term (Bruce,2003).However, the adoption of these changes necessitates the participationof effectively motivated workforce. Indeed, such a workforce wouldallow the changes to be introduced, implemented and accepted withoutnegative attitudes against them, in which case the organization willremain on the right track as far as growth and competitiveness isconcerned.
Lastly,motivation would bring the employees closer to the business entity.Indeed, employees would start taking more interest in the company aslong as their needs are met via attractive rewards and promotionalopportunities among others. these incentives and motivationaltechniques would essentially imbue in them the thought that theirinterests are in line with the interest of the business entity in thelong term (Latham,2007).This comes in handy in the development of cordial relations betweenthe workers and the management. Of particular note is the fact thatthere exists numerous motivational theories that have been devised soas to guide entities in the achievement of the employee motivationgoals. These are depicted in the motivational theories map andinclude two-factor theory and the needs hierarchy theory (Lauby,2005).
Theneeds hierarchy theory is based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.Maslow states that there are five fundamental classes of needsdepicting the human requirements pertaining to complexity. Indeed, hestates that people are motivated by unsatisfied needs in which casethe lower level needs such as safety and physiological needs wouldneed to be satisfied prior to satisfaction of the higher level needs(Thomas,2009).Essentially, in instances where managers attempt to motivate theiremployees through the satisfaction of their needs, Maslow indicatesthat the manager must strive to satisfy the lower level needs priorto the satisfaction of the upper level ones otherwise the employeeswould be demotivated (Doyle,2005).In addition, managers would need to remember that there exists nouniversal way for satisfying all employees’ needs, in which casethey will strive to figure out the levels that are active for certaincategories of employees and seek to satisfy them. Of particular noteis the fact that only unsatisfied needs would yield motivation whilethe satisfied needs would not.
Inthe case of the two factor theory of motivation (which is also calledintrinsic/extrinsic motivation) there are certain factors that wouldresult in job satisfaction but in instances where they are notpresent, they would not result in dissatisfaction rather they wouldcause no satisfaction (Griffin&Moorhead, 2010).These are called motivators and may include responsibility,recognition and challenging work, all which provide positivemotivation. On the same note, there are positive factors such as jobsecurity, fringe benefits, salary and status in the workplace, all ofwhich would not motivate when they are present but their absencewould cause demotivation (Bruce&Pepitone, 1999).The term hygiene factors comes into play because like hygiene, itspresence would not make an individual healthier but its absence wouldresult in deterioration of health.
Inconclusion, motivation comes as one of the most fundamental elementsin the contemporary human society, with individuals and businessentities acknowledging the fundamental role it plays in enhancing theproductivity of employees and, as a consequence, the businessentities in which they work (Silverstein,2007).Scholars have noted that motivated employees would be more receptiveof change, own the production process even more and have a higherincentive to dedicate all their efforts to the company as they opinethat their interests are similar to those of the company (Armstrong,2002).Numerous theories have been crafted in an effort to come up withproper explanation regarding what varied elements of motivation workto give employees an incentive to work in a certain way. Theseinclude Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory and The two factortheory (motivator-hygiene theory). As much as these two theories areprimarily based on different assertions, it is noteworthy that theyboth aim at satisfying particular needs of the employees so as tohave them work in a particular way (Podmoroff,2005).Essentially, this underlines the notion that the needs of employeesare fundamental to motivating them.
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