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Thisreport covers gender equity among business firms. The report arisesout of concern of The National Women in Business Council that theNation’s top business firms are hiring women at a lower rate thanmen of equivalent experience. They are also concerned that women inbusiness firms are receiving lower wages than men of equivalentexperience. The report will seek to evaluate four of the Nation’smost reputable business employers and evaluate the degree to whichthe accusations of gender in-equality are true, and supported bydata. These firms under study include: Penrose Corporation,Magnacorp, Numeratec, and Suncorp. The analysis will also includecomparing firm-level data against both national data on businessemployees and citywide data on business employees, for the cities inwhich these four firms are located.

Question1: National Gender Income Neutrality

Median Salary as Percent of National Median

Years of Experience (years greater than)

Percent (men)

Percent (women)

1

100.0

73.2

2

102.2

82.8

3

102.3

93.7

4

100.2

92.1

5

104.7

89.1

6

102.4

87.8

7

103.5

90.2

8

103.8

90.2

9

106.9

88.2

10

108.8

89.3

11

104.5

86.6

12

111.3

86.9

13

110.9

86.9

14

111.8

88.1

15

105.7

85.6

16

105.0

84.5

17

108.9

93.3

18

105.9

94.6

19

103.3

89.8

20

118.1

98.2

21

128.7

96.6

22

125.9

96.2

23

115.9

97.2

24

110.6

100.0

Fromthe values and the figures presented it appears that the accusationleveled on men is true. In the US men make more money than women inbusiness. This is justified by every group presented in terms ofyears of experience. For each group of experience there is hugedisparity in terms of percentage median salary. Thus the principle ofdistributional equity is violated looking at the wage rates with mengetting more than women at the national level owing to the fourcities from which the study is done. According to this principle,there should be equal share in terms of resource formation anddistribution for both genders (Loscocco etal.,1991)

Question2: Citywide Gender Employment Neutrality

Percent Women in Business by City

Years of Experience (years greater than)

Chicago

Oakland

Springfield

Houston

1

36.9

23.1

47.8

73.0

2

25.8

28.0

20.8

40.0

3

26.7

12.9

30.0

21.0

4

26.5

12.9

46.3

22.9

5

27.1

10.1

31.2

55.0

6

16.6

5.9

24.0

65.0

7

16.4

24.1

21.7

15.0

8

16.0

6.2

37.7

16.0

9

15.9

23.8

8.2

55.0

10

11.4

19.8

7.9

32.9

11

13.3

5.1

39.6

37.9

12

23.9

23.1

17.3

30.1

13

31.0

18.0

37.8

64.0

14

33.8

9.2

19.5

11.9

15

35.0

10.9

36.5

29.0

16

34.4

25.4

13.6

48.1

17

22.7

17.8

37.9

22.0

18

17.9

27.2

50.0

52.1

19

11.9

16.9

26.2

71.8

20

1.4

32.3

41.2

64.8

21

17.8

0.0

30.8

50.8

22

18.1

28.1

55.6

32.9

23

5.4

5.9

20.0

38.1

24

0.0

50.0

50.0

0.0

Total

486.0

436.6

751.6

949.4

Thepercentage of women in business is quite low with most of thedifferent groups of experiences having less than 50% representation.This is quite absurd as it defies the principle of distributionalequity given that there is no equal share in hiring of the two gendergroups for every city. This therefore translates to more men beinghired as compared to women. There are no signs or evidence of genderneutrality in hiring across all the cities as the disparities ingender. At 24 years of experience, there is a funny trend in termsof gender hiring with two cities (Chicago and Houston) having nofemale representation while the other cities having an equal numberas that of males representing 50% of gender.

Question3: Gender Employment Neutrality by Firm

Percent of Total Women Business Employees (High and Low Experience)

&nbsp

Penrose

Magnacorp

Numera-tec

Suncorp

Experience

Percent Women

Percent Women

Percent Women

Percent Women

Percent &gt10 years

13.07%

16.33%

3.35%

12.64%

Percent ≤ 10 years

35.28%

31.94%

5.87%

40.58%

TOTAL Women (Percent)

48.35%

48.28%

9.22%

53.23%

Percent of Total Women Business Employees Citywide

City

Chicago

Oakland

Springfield

Houston

Percent Women Hired Citywide

23.20

16.74

29.74

40.28

Thetable shows the total number of women in business citywide inpercentages. The women hired in each of the four companies are hiredat a low rate as compared to men. This is evidence by the percentageswith Oakland hiring as low as 16.74 percentages. However, Houstonhires relatively high number but still below that of male and belowthe distributional equity threshold. Of the four companies, Suncorpseems to hire more women followed by Penrose and Numera-tac employs apaltry of this group. The trend in terms of hiring can be verticallyconnected to the trend in years of experience hence there is verticalequity concern. More women who are hired are less experienced witheach of the four firms hiring more women who have less years ofexperience.

Question4: Wage Neutrality by Firm

MaleBusiness Employees-Penrose

FemaleBusiness Employees-Penrose

MaleBusiness Employees (Magnacorp)

FemaleBusiness Employees (Magnacorp)

MaleBusiness Employees (Numera-tec)

FemaleBusiness Employees (Numera-tec)

MaleBusiness Employees (Suncorp)

FemaleBusiness Employees (Suncorp)

Explanation

Lookingat the figures it is clear that women are not paid as highly as menare. This is supported by the visual looks of the graphs representingall business employees (National Median Wages), Male BusinessEmployees (National Median Wages) and female Business Employees(National Median Wages). With a keener attention on the four firms itemerges that women are not paid well and there is no sign of wageneutrality from the wage data provided.

References

Loscocco,K. A., Robinson, J., Hall, R. H., &amp Allen, J. K. (1991). Genderand small business success: an inquiry into women`s relativedisadvantage. Social forces, 70(1), 65-85.