Bargh argues the need for marketing to benefit from consumer responseautomatic market influences, which raises issue on if the strategy,is ethical marketing. Ethical marketing is the procedure ofgenerating consumer awareness in services or products (Smith,Goldstein &amp Johnson, 2013). It involves creating a strongconsumer relationship to what is being marketing. Although marketingis aimed at influencing consumer choices, the customer still has theoption of reacting to products or services as expected by marketersor not. As Chartrand and Fitzsimons (2010) notes, all consumerbehavior comprises of both a conscious and nonconscious decisionmaking process, meaning, it is not just the marketing influencingcustomer reaction, which makes the appeal to automatic influencesethical. Nonconscious influences arise when individuals involuntarilyreact to an advertisement, because of the desire of fulfilling basicneeds (Courbet, 2014). Thus,resulting in the conclusion that appealing to nonconsciousinfluences’ ethicality may also rely on the context. For instance,an advertisement that praises bullying amid teenagers, by showingstudents uploading a bully is unethical when compared to one thatappeals to students to stand up against bullying when they witnessit.

A customer-centric theory may advance towards value co-creation as amarketing strategy. Co-creation refers to a management idea, whichdraws diverse parties towards a common objective in the production ofa mutual value outcome (Galvagno &ampDalli, 2014). When involving the customer, value co-creationbecomes a progress in service improvement focusing on prospectmarkets through engaging the customer during the product production.Since customers become aware of how to use a product through previousexperiences, the knowhow acquired during co-creation is valuable inensuring consumers realize unmet product needs (Killa, 2014). Thismakes the proposition for a customer-centric theory an effectivemarketing strategy. When customers realize unmet needs from aproduct, they use the knowledge to determine where their needs may bemet within the market. The firm seizes to become the solitarynegotiator of value, since consumers become active in creating theirown value (Jaakkola &ampAlexander, 2014). Hence, companies need a theory, whichexamines the allocation of social, cultural and economic capital byconsumers, which they use in enhancing their endowment.


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Courbet, D., &ampFourquet-Courbet, M. P. (2014). Non-conscious Effects of Communication and Implicit Attitude Change: State of Research andNew Perspectives.&nbspInternationalJournal of Journalism &amp Mass Communication,1(103),103.

Galvagno, M., &amp Dalli, D.(2014). Theory of value co-creation: a systematic literature review.&nbspManagingService Quality,&nbsp24(6),643-683.

Jaakkola, E., &amp Alexander, M.(2014). The Role of Customer Engagement Behavior in Value Co-Creation A Service System Perspective.&nbspJournalof Service Research, 1094670514529187.

Killa, M. F. (2014). Effect ofEntrepreneurial Innovativeness Orientation, Product Innovation, andValue Co-Creation on Performance.&nbspJournalof Research in ,&nbsp2(3),198-204.

Smith, N. C., Goldstein, D. G., &ampJohnson, E. J. (2013). Choice without awareness: ethical and policyimplications of defaults.&nbspJournalof Public Policy &amp ,&nbsp32(2),159-172.