MathPPT Analysis and Reflection
MathPPT Analysis and Reflection
DataAnalysis and probability
Dataanalysis and probability entail one of the basic mathematic standardsamong children in their elementary learning. Generally, data analysisprimarily equips young children with skills in collection,organization, and display of data. On the other hand, probabilityfamiliarizes them with basic vocabularies (such as impossible,certain, maybe, among others) essential in the description of thelikelihood of occurrence of events (Copley,2000). The seemingly unreasonable activities young children engage inhelp the start grasping basic concepts and language of data analysisand probability.
Ateacher constitutes an important element in children learningprocess. While presiding over their learning, a teacher ought tocreate an environment conducive enough for the benefit of thechildren. First, he or she should not exert a lot of pressure on thechildren to grasp this math standard. This is due to the fact that atthis level, data analysis and probability does not carry significantweight like other mathematical standards. Nonetheless, they shouldconcentrate on helping the young children grow in a number of areaskey to this particular math standard (Copley, 2000).
Forinstance, they should ensure that their students excel in sorting andclassification of several objects. At this tentative age, childrenattempt to sort things into clusters such as color based on their ownperceived attributes. Additionally, a teacher should help childrennurture skills in data representation. They should represent varioussets of data specifically into charts and graphs. In data analysisand probability, children also describe, compare and contrastphenomena within their context (Copley, 2000).
Furthermore,children apply the skills they acquire from data analysis andprobability class in other mathematic standards. For example numberand operation, patterns. And measurement standards necessitate anumber of skills learnt in data analysis and probability standard.Also, children need these skills to enable them maneuver across thewhole curriculum. In conclusion, it is worth to note that dataanalysis and probability is a basic standard necessary not onlywithin mathematics but also within other disciplines across thecurriculum. The standard helps young children to advance in askingquestions, collecting, organizing, representing, describing andcomparing data (Copley, 2000).
Geometryand Spatial Sense
Introductionto geometry and spatial sense encompasses another basic mathematicstandard among children. Geometry refers to the study of shape, size,direction, and movements of the physical world (Copley, 2000). On theother hand, spatial sense entails and individuals consciousness ofself with regard to people and other objects within his environment.This standard enables young children to learn and understand theirphysical setting.
Geometryand special sense act as a ladder to the understanding othermathematical standards. Young children begin to learn how to reasonby associating with their environment. At its core is the capacity toidentify shapes, understanding in counting, patterns, functions, andclassification of objects. Furthermore, it is a key ingredient inother areas such as reading alphabetical letters and analysis of mapsand other diagrams. Just like in the other mathematic standards,teachers play a critical role in facilitating children to understandgeometry and spatial sense (Copley, 2000). Teachers try to helpchildren to associate themselves with their context through theirbasic symbols.
However,learning geometry and spatial space takes a number of paths. Theybegin to identify and compare shapes they perceive within theirenvironment. This is often followed by efforts to constructdifferent types of shapes (such as circles, squares, ovals, etc.).Thereafter, they begin to understand the meaning of the particularobjects and the vocabulary unique to the area (Copley, 2000). Thedevelopment pattern rests with visual orientation the ability toview a group of shapes, looks away, and then reconstructs theoriginal shape.
Generally,in their learning of geometry, young children need to familiarizethemselves with certain key skills and concepts. Shape concepts(types, attributes, classification), spatial sense (visualizingobjects in different positions and imagining that they are moving),transformation, and lines of symmetry completes the basic skillsyoung children need to be equipped with before proceeding to the nextgrades (Copley, 2000). In addition, rich environment and in-classassessment help children understand geometry and spatial sense.
Measuremententails another basic mathematic standard among young children intheir elementary classes. Children grasp mathematical concepts,skills and experience step by step since this standard is quitecomplex. Learning measurement among children follows a particularpattern of developmental stages. In every stage, children need to bein an enabling environment that will help them capitalize on thismath standard (Copley, 2000). Also, teachers do play a central rolein this process. Generally, children learn measurement through thefollowing stages:
First,they learn simple identification of objects within theirenvironments. This stage entails children perceiving differentobjects such as pens, books, fruits, furniture, among other things inclassroom and even at home. After identification, children begin tocompare the particular items they identified. At such a younger age,children engage in comparison by making simple judgments of theobjects they perceive. Generally, simple questions such as how long,how far, how deep, how old, how heavy, among others, enhance theirmomentum toward understanding measurement (Copley, 2000).
Thereafter,they engage in transitive reasoning. Transitive reasoning entailsdifferentiating objects with regard to their measurement forexample, if John weighs more than Peter, then John is heavier thanPeter. Transitive reasoning is immediately followed by actualmeasurement of objects. At this stage, children begin to assignparticular attributes to the objects they perceive. The majorattributes in measurement include length (linear measurement), mass(amount of matter in an object), time (measure of duration), volume(space occupied by a three-dimensional object), among others (Copley,2000). Furthermore, the children also start to define theirmeasurements by their specific units (for example centimeters forlength).
Finally,the children begin to estimate measurement of objects. Estimationrefers to as a “good guess”. Children estimate the length,weight, volume of objects, periods of time, etc. estimation enhancestheir understanding of measurement as a mathematic standard. Inconclusion, mathematic rich-environments, compounded by in-classassessments heighten children’s capacity to grasp skills andexperience in measurement.
Thenumbers and operations are arguably the most important mathematicstandards that young children have to pursue in their elementaryclasses. The understanding of number concepts and acquisition ofskills is more or less a continuous process that establish a child’sfoundation not only mathematics but other areas of schooling (Copley,2000). Significant experiences in the representation of quantities indifferent ways, as well as establishing connections in class andother social places are critical to this standard.
Althoughskill development in mathematic standards is largely dependents onchildren’s experiences, there are five basic areas that areimportant in number and operations. They include subitizing,counting, comparing and ordering, early addition and subtraction, andcomposing number and place value (Copley, 2000). To begin with,subitizing is a skill young children cannot afford to overlook. Itinvolves the recognition of the numerosity of a particular group. Themain emphasis here is to help young children understand whole numbersand the concept of place value.
Itis followed by counting. In the low grades, counting entails recitingsequence of number names. Counting is rather complex for youngchildren because they have to link the uttered numbers to theircorresponding digits, and also maintain track of the particularseries. Comparison and ordering of numbers also entails the basicpaths to mastering numbers and functions among young children. Inaddition, children in PreK are introduced to basic addition andsubtraction rules. Generally, addition and subtraction rules lay thefoundation of mathematics right from the PreK all the way to highergrades. Also, children learn how to compose number and place value.Besides that, enumeration and comparison of items is also key tounderstanding number operation.
Atthis particular juncture, I find it necessary to affirm that of allthe mathematic standards taught to young children, number andoperations stand out the strongest. Therefore, young children shouldbe granted the necessary assistance to ensure their understanding ofnumbers and operations in mathematics.
Patterns,Functions, and Algebra
Youngchildren are exposed to the concept of patterns early before they areenrolled in elementary schools. This can be attributed to the factthat patterns (regular arrangement of objects, numbers, or shapes)occur in almost all natural activities children are exposed to(Copley, 2000). However, as a mathematic standard, children areintroduced to learning experiences that pay significant attention onpatterns effectively. Patterns are important to young childrenbecause they help them build their ability to generalize combinationsof numbers, counting strategies, and problem solving. As childrenexperience various patterns in their environment, and try to linkthem with mathematical circumstances, their potential to recall andapply whatever they learn to other situations.
Learningpatterns in young children occur in a sequential manner. First, thechildren learn how to find and recognize various patterns in theirenvironment. They then exercise how to practical copy patterns bythemselves. Lending from copying process, they make attempts toextend the patterns. The sequence elapses with the children havingmastered the necessary skills to perfectly create their own patterns(Copley, 2000).
Algebrais a branch of mathematics that uses symbols to represent generalrules in relation to numbers, number relations, and operations(Copley, 2000). Algebra boosts the general thinking capacity of youngchildren by way of recognizing patterns, establishing keygeneralities, and using symbols to represent problems and theirsolutions.
Withinthe patterns, functions, and algebra mathematic standard, symbolsplay an important function. They are generally used to simplifycomplex mathematical expressions into precise expressions that aid ineffective interpretation of relationships between numbers.
Insummary, early introduction of symbols, representations, patterns,graphs, equations, functions, among other algebraic concepts helpyoung children lay firm foundation for later relatively more complexoperations within the subject. Nonetheless, the creation of amathematic-rich environment coupled by in-class assessments is anasset to their understanding of patterns, functions, and algebra.
Copley,J. V. (2000). The young child and mathematics. Washington, DC:National association for the Education of young Children.