Microbiology

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Theterm bioremediation usually refers to the microorganisms that areused to degrade all the contaminants that cause human risks, as wellas environmental pollution. An example of bioremediationmicroorganism is Pseudomonas putida and it is a gram-negativebacterium that lives in soil. In addition, it participates in thetoluene ‘an element of paint thinner’ bioremediation (Bunny,2010). The organism also has the capability of degrading naphthalene,which is a produced during the process of refining petroleum, presentin contaminated soils.

Pseudomonasputida KT2440 Nitrogen metabolism or cycle

Thenitrogen cycle biological process is a very complex interplay that isfound among different microorganisms that catalyze differentreactions, especially where nitrogen is present in differentoxidation states which vary from +5 in nitrate form to -3 in NH3(ammonia). The main nitrogen cycle comprises of two oxidationpathways and four reduction pathways. Nitrogen fixation refers to theprocess of reducing the nitrogen from the atmosphere to ammonia,which is a biologically important form, and it is incorporated intoother vital compounds such as amino acids. The ability ofincorporating atmospheric nitrogen by nitrogenase enzyme compound isusually present in restricted prokaryotes. In addition, the othernitrogen reduction pathways are dissimilatory nitrate reduction andassimilatory nitrate reduction these two pathways are involved innitrogen conversion to dentrification and ammonia (Bunny, 2010).Dentrification involves respiration process and nitrite or nitrate isreduced to an electron acceptor and this process occurs under anoxicconditions or low oxygen, producing various gaseous compounds ofnitrogen such as N2O, NO, and N2 to the atmosphere. Further, the twopathways of oxidation are anaerobic ammonium oxidation andnitrification. Additionally, nitrification refers to the ammoniaoxidation with oxygen to form nitrite this process is followed bynitrite oxidation to produce nitrate.

Microorganismsare usually present within or on every higher organism, such asplants. For example, plant can associate with microbes such asbacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and oomycetes and they playimportant roles in the plants’ health. In addition, majority of theplant-derived compounds are dependable for providing additionalcarbon that usually enables the rhizosphere to accommodate a broadvariety of organisms (Deborah, 2011). A good example is thehymenomycetes from the ectomycorrhizal fungi group these fungiusually make a hyphal covering around the ecto or outside of foresttrees roots and supply their vital nutrients.

Carboncycle

Fungiusually play an important role in the process of lignified celluloseand cellulose biodegradation, which is responsible for producinghundreds of billions of carbon dioxide tons to the atmosphere.According to the mycorrhizal fungi, each tree in the forest isassociated with thousands of kilometers that are occupied with fungalhyphae. In addition, the photosynthetic process that takes place onleaves of trees usually forms the foundation for all other organiccarbon complexes that make up the tree(Prakash, Satyanarayana, &amp Johri, 2011).The photosynthetic process is usually mediated by fungi because theyare suppliers of majority of the essential minerals as well as waterrequired during this process. When the amount of active fungalutilized during the biodegradation is considered, the results usuallyprove that almost 90% of the entire living organic material found inthe forest soils is fungi biomass. In other words, forest treesprimarily obtain almost all the minerals and water they requirethrough the extensive networks of ectomycorrhizal fungi such ashymenomycetes. Conclusively, these fungi either grow on phosphorusions sources or access the ion from other sources such as rockphosphate.

References

BunnyJaskot. (Vol. 72. No. 8, October 2010). It’s a Small World afterall… a microcosm… Tell the Kids! Retrieved on 19 March 2015.https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-245037798/it-s-a-small-world-after-all-a-microcosm-tell-the-kids

DeborahSiegel. (Vol. 78, No.6, September 2011). Avatar in the ScienceClassroom: Linking Science and Pop Culture to Design ImaginaryEcosystems. Retrieved on 19 March 2015. https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-267811172/avatar-in-the-science- classroom-linking-science-and-pop-culture-to-design-imaginary-ecosystems.

Prakash,A., Satyanarayana, T., &amp Johri, B. N. (2011).&nbspMicroorganismsin environmental management: Microbes and environment.Dordrecht: Springer.