Module 5 Homework

Module 5 Homework 5

Module5 Homework

AlliedAmerican University

AuthorNote

Thispaper was prepared for [INSERT COURSE NAME], [INSERT COURSEASSIGNMENT] taught by [INSERT INSTRUCTOR’S NAME]

PARTI

Directions:Please provide detailed and elaborate responses to the followingquestions. Your response to each should be a minimum of one half ofone page in length and should include examples from the readingassignments.

  1. What is the correspondence theory of truth? Explain what Bertrand Russell said about correspondence theory.

Thetheory of correspondence states that the falsity or truth of astatement is determined by how it relates to world and if itaccurately describes the world. This theory is in contrast to thecoherence theory which states that the falsity or truth of astatement can be determined by its relations to statements and nottheir relation to the world. In other words, the correspondencetheory of truth simply states that the truth is what corresponds toreality. It is important to distinguish the facts and beliefs inorder to understand the truth. A fact is a set of circumstances whilea belief is comprised of an opinion about circumstances. A factcannot be deemed to be false or true this is because this is the waythe world views it. On the other hand, a belief can be either falseor true because it may either accurately describe circumstance in theworld or do the opposite. For example, the belief that the sky isblue is because of the fact the sky is blue. Bertrand Russell was ascholar who advanced the correspondence theory of truth. According toBertrand, the truth can be determined in the way the reality isdescribed by belief. A belief is false when it does not agree withthe state of affairs. For our belief to be true, then our beliefsmust coincide with the reality. However, correspondence theory doesnot discover the truth or establish the nature of what is real(Russell).

  1. Explain some of the challenges to the correspondence theory.

Thecorrespondence theory of truth is perhaps of the oldest traditionalmodel that goes way back to the teachings of classical Greekphilosophers such as Plato, Socrates and Aristotle. Thecorrespondence theory of truth is usually linked with metaphysicalrealism as opposed to idealism and relativism which are applied inthe coherent and pragmatic theories of truth. The correspondence oftruth does have some serious challenges in that the truth isdetermined by our set of belief about various set of circumstances.Therefore, if our belief is based on erroneous knowledge this wouldmean that the truth is actually false. Another challenge in thecorrespondence theory is that the truth is based on based on factsand facts are basically a view of how the world sees things.Therefore, facts need to be explained in order for the truth to bedetermined. In other words, the truth can only be ascertained ifverification is involved.

3. Whatis Tarski’s definition of truth?

In1933, Polish Alfred Tarski who was a logician worked on the notion oftruth through defining it in a set of sentence. Tarski was of theopinion that the falsity or truth of a sentence from one languagewould be different or false if another language was utilized. Inother words, a definition of a language in its object language mightbe different in a metalanguage. Therefore, Tarski was more interestedin defining the truth in the form of sentences. For example, a stringof characters might hold true in the English language but meansomething different in Italian(Speaks,2005).Tarski works was aimed at using any language to arrive at the samedefinition of truth in that particular language. In addition, Tarskibelieve in the use of science methodology in finding solutions toproblems. In this case, in answering the question of what is thetruth, Tarski had three aims. These included: the logical aim, themethodological aim and the philosophical aim.

  1. What is the instrumentalist view and what does it emphasize?

Instrumentalistsin philosophy were in the opinion that the value of concepts used inscience is determined by the extent to which the scientific conceptor theory assists in making predictions or resolve questions and notwhether a truth or false statement can be reached. Instrumentalistsbelieve that ascertaining whether an object is true or false is notachievable and therefore the value of a theory can only be judgeddepending on how it explains the world. In other words, it isimpossible to tell if a theory is leading one to the proper directionand the only thing one can do is use the theory to further ideas anddepending on more evidence, a theory can either be approved ordisapproved.

  1. How do the instrumentalist view and realist view differ?

Instrumentalismwas based on pragmatism, where the value of ideas is determined to beuseful depending on how useful it is helping people make decisions inlife. The philosophy was brought about by an American philosopher bythe name of John Dewey. Realism on the other hand, is based on theview that entities in the world, exist independent of our mind.Scientific realism for instance uses science to explain and describeboth observable and non-observable things. Realism and instrumentaldiffer in that the two draw the same agreement as far as observableand non-observable entities are concerned. Instrumentalist does notbelieve in the existence of non-observable entities while realismbelieves that there are no distinctions between non-observable andnon-observable entities. The two views also differ on the view ofscience. Realists believe that science leads them towards the truthwhile instrumentalists hold that science is a miracle(Cacioppo,Semin, &amp Berntson, 2004).

References

Cacioppo,J. T., Semin, G. R., &amp Berntson, G. G. (2004, May). Realism,Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis.Retrieved February 28, 2015, from University of Chicago:http://psychology.uchicago.edu/people/faculty/cacioppo/jtcreprints/csb04.pdf

Russell,B. (n.d.). Whatis the Truth? by Bertrand Russell.Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Lander.edu:http://philosophy.lander.edu/intro/articles/correspondence-a.pdf

Speaks,J. (2005, March 2). Tarski`sTheory of Truth.Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Notre Dame:http://www3.nd.edu/~jspeaks/courses/mcgill/415/Tarski.pdf