Nutrition Project Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

NutritionProject: Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

NutritionProject: Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

Parenteralandenteral are methodsof feedingthat are usedto deliverpartorthewholeof theindividual’scalorific requirements.Thetwo methodsof feeding(includingParenteral andenteral nutrition)can resultin seriouscomplications,suchas acutecholecystitis, steatosis, cholestasis, pulmonaryembolism, andsteatohepatitis among others (Quigley, Marsh, Shaffer &amp Markin,2000).Nursescan usedifferentmethodsto preventtheoccurrenceof thesecomplications.Someof thesemethodsincludethefrequentchangeof catheter to preventinfectionsandtheuseof a multidisciplinary supportteamthat ensuresthatthestandardcareprotocolsareobserved.In addition,administrationof cholecystokinin through periodicpulsesof amino acidscan preventtheformationof sludgeandstasis. Moreover,nursescan flushheparin in orderto preventtheoccurrenceof thrombosis (Kirby &amp Parisian, 2011). Client`s&nbspprogressshould alsobemonitoredin orderto ensurethatcomplicationsare discoveredbefore theygetworse.

Enteralnutritionrefersto a feeding methodin which nutritional requirementsaredeliveredthrough thegastrointestinal tract,which can be achievedusingtubes,liquidsupplements,orthenormaloralfeeding (Kirby &amp Parisian, 2011).Thepurposeof enteral nutritionis to helppatientswhohavefunctioningGIs, butunableto feedorally.Enteral nutritioncan be usedto delivermedicationswhena patienthas nocapacityto swallowthem safely.Someof thecommondevicesusedin enteral nutritionincludecolorimetric carbondioxide detector,tubeplacementapparatus,andfeedingtubes(Roberts, Echeverria &amp Gabriel, 2007). Parenteral nutrition,on theotherhand,is a feeding methodthat involvesthedeliveryof nutritional requirementsinto theveins.Thepurposeof parenteral nutritionis to helppatientswith dysfunctional GI maintaintheir normalnutritional requirementsoruseprescribedmedicationas requiredby injectingthedrugsornutrients directlyinto theblood(Kirby &amp Parisian, 2011).Commondevicesusedin parenteral nutritionincludecatheter andneedle.

Thenursingprocessis a commonthreadthat unitesnurseswhoworkin differentareas.Thenursingprocessisthe coreofregisterednurses’practiceto deliverpatient-focusedandholistic care.Thenursingprocessrequiresnursesto applydynamicandsystematicapproachestocollectas wellas analyzingdata about their clientsin orderto ensurethattheprocessof assessmentleadsto an effectivedeliveryof thenursingcare(American Nursing Association, 2015).Whenassessingpatientsforparenteral nutrition,nursesshould considerseveralfactors,includingtheabilityof thepatientto sustainthenutritional orfluidstatusby oralfeeding, thefunctionality of thegastrointestinal tract,andtheavailability of lessriskyfeeding alternatives,suchenteral nutrition.Registerednursesshould alsobe ableto projectthepossiblecomplications.An assessmentof enteral nutritionshould considerseveralfactors,includingthecapacityof theGI to digestingested foodandthepossibilityof usingtheoralmethodof feeding. Inaddition,thenursingprocessrequiresthehealthcareprofessionalsto considera widerangeof factors(includingthesocio-cultural, psychological,lifestyle, economic,andspiritualfactors)that may havesomeimpactson thetypeof treatment(ANA, 2015).Thisimpliesthatnursesshould considermanyfactors,includingthosethat arenot directlyrelatedto thecomplicationsthat necessitatedtheuseof parenteral andenteral nutritionduring theassessmentprocess.

Inconclusion,parenteral nutritionandenteral nutritionare differentmethodsthat can be usedby nursesto helppatientsmaintaintheir fluidaswellas thenutritional requirementsat normallevels. Thetwo methodsare essentialproceduresthat areadministeredwhenpatientshavedysfunctional GI tracts(parenteral nutrition)orhavea functionalGI tract,butcannot feedorally(enteral nutrition).However,thetwo methodsshould be administeredwith carein orderto preventtheoccurrenceof complications.

References

Kirby, F. &amp Parisian,K. (2011).Enteraland Parenteral Nutrition.Cleveland,OH: The Cleveland Clinic.

Quigley,E., Marsh, N., Shaffer, J. &amp Markin, R. (2000). Hepatobiliarycomplications of total parenteral nutrition. Gastroenterology104(1): 286–301.

Roberts,S., Echeverria, P. &amp Gabriel, S. (2007). Devices and techniquesfor bedside enteral feeding tube placement. NutritionalClinic Practice,22 (4), 412-420. TheAmerican Nursing Association (2015). The nursing process. ANA.Retrieved March 5, 2015, fromhttp://www.nursingworld.org/EspeciallyForYou/What-is-Nursing/Tools-You-Need/Thenursingprocess.html