ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND STRUCTURE 8
OrganizationalDesign and Structure
Whyshared information is important in learning organization compared toefficient performance organization
Sharedinformation is vital in learning organizations compared to efficientperformance organization as sharing information promotescollaboration and communication (Daft, 2013). Through sharing ofinformation, everyone is involved in problem identification andsolving thereby enabling the organization to improve and increase itscapability. Sharing of information helps organization to continuefunctioning at optimum level(Amaral and Uzzi, 2007).For instance, sharing information helps to open communicationchannels between staffs and the management thus improving managementrather than using information to control employees. Sharing ofinformation helps organization as it enhances the flow of ideas inall directions among staffs (Jacobides,2007).In addition, learning organizations are able to maintain open line ofcommunication with suppliers, customers and competitors.
HowOrganizational approach on information sharing is related toorganization structure, tasks, strategy, and culture
Thedegree of information sharing in organizations is related toorganization design such as culture, structure and tasks.Organization structures play significant role in determining thelevel of information sharing (Daft, 2013). Traditionally,organization’s top executives kept information at the top of theorganization hierarchical structure (Amaraland Uzzi, 2007).The vertical organizational structure ensured that there was aneffective flow of authority, control and supervision. As such,strategies were formulated by the top management and passed throughthe organization vertical structure in most traditionalorganizations. Major decisions on how to use resources, respond tocompetition and conduct other organization operations were made bytop management.
However,horizontal organization structures are rapidly replacing thesetraditional organization structures. Under horizontal structures,there is no hierarchical boundary and staffs share ideas across. Thevertical structure defined specific roles for each employee and thisinhibited effective information sharing (Jacobides,2007).The vertical structure encouraged discretion and this inhibitedeffective information sharing. However, the horizontal structureempowers employee through sharing information with suppliers,customers and other staffs (Amaraland Uzzi, 2007).In this way, employees change their approach of doing business underhorizontal structure, employees share information with otherstakeholders in the organization thereby improving organizationperformance.
Inaddition, horizontal structure diffuses boundaries and lowerscompetition in organizations leading to more partnership andcollaboration between organizations (Daft, 2013). These collaborationstrategies lead organizations adaptive cultures that encourageopenness, equality and improvement for change. In horizontalstructure, status symbols are discarded to enhance more interactionsand information sharing (Amaraland Uzzi, 2007).Each employee becomes a valued contributor in the organizationthereby developing a web of interrelationship where employees exploittheir potentials fully. All employees participate in strategy makingemployees effectively incorporated in identify problems and findsolutions.
Differencesbetween the expectations of nonprofit organization stakeholdersversus for-profit business
Stakeholdersare individuals who have invested influence or interest in theaffairs of a particular organization. Stakeholders’ interests andinfluence varies depending on the nature of organization profit andnon-profit organization (O’Neill, 2009). Non-profit organizationsfocus on service provisions to people with less concern to economicreturns. Profit making organizations focuses on services and products that yield profits for the organization. As such, stakeholders innon-profit and for-profit organizations have differing interests. Forinstance, in non-profit organizations, employees should be motivatedto accomplish tasks as shared in the organization mission. Employees’contribution to the organization is not based on economic returns butassisting organizations achieve their missions even if thecompensation for their services is meager.
However,employees working in for-profit organizations are motivated by wagesearned for their services, In this case, employees, managers,suppliers, investors and other stakeholders share the common goal ofmaximizing economic returns for their benefits (Daft, 2013). In thisarrangement, stakeholders interest in the organization is tied to theeconomic gains and such interests diminishes when profits dwindles.Therefore, managers in for-profit organizations pay much attention tobusiness than managers in non-profit organizations (O’Neill, 2009).
Insome aspect, managers in non-profit organization may not be overlymotivated with the interests of other stakeholders. However, managersin non-profit organizations need to pay more attention tostakeholders’ interests as this forms important means through whichcommunity services are improved. Ideally, managers in non-profitshave less authority than managers in for-profit organizations (Amaraland Uzzi, 2007).
Furthermore,non-profit managers deal with organizations that have few resourcesstaffs and finance. As such, nonprofit managers need to pay muchattention when running the affairs of organizations than theircounterpart in the corporate world. In non-profit organization, morereliance is placed on the leader for the successful running of theorganization (O’Neill, 2009). In this way, managers in non-profitsneed to pay more attention to organization affairs so that theinterests of the stakeholders donors, community and employees aremet.
Howcompany goals for employee development are related to innovation andchange goals?
Organization’sinnovation and change are tied to employee development. Organizationsthat achieve positive change and innovations in all levels ofoperations have effective employee development programs. Employees’development helps in maintaining trained, motivated and committedstaffs who contributes to organization productivity (Daft, 2013).
Motivatedstaffs perform well in their tasks and become innovative therebyimproving organization returns. As such, organizations’ goal forinnovation and change should be tied to strategies employed byorganizations in developing employees. Key aspect in employeedevelopment is through training and career development activities(Jacobides,2007).An organization that continuously train and develop employees skillsbecomes innovative and adapt to changes easily (Daft, 2013).
Effectiveremuneration is important in motivating employees. Employees who arewell paid become active and participate actively in organizationactivities. Delegation of decision making is another important aspectthat would predispose organizations to innovativeness and easyadaptation to change. When organizations invest in the development ofemployees’ skills, talents and motivating them, organizationachieves high productivity.
Someaspects of employee development are costly and may increaseorganizations expenses leading to low profits. Employee developmentprograms such as training programs and salary increase may proveexpensive to organizations. In this way, the goal of organizationproductivity may conflict with the goal of employee development(Daft, 2013). However, with adequate management this conflict istemporary. Investments made on employee development do not lead toinstantaneous returns on organization productivity.
Evaluatingthe effectiveness of the police department in a medium-sizedcommunity
Inevaluating the effectiveness of a police department in a givencommunity, the first thing that would be assessed is the motivationlevel of police personnel. Policing is not easy and involves greatsacrifice on individual’s life police work in harsh environments,risks their lives and spend less time with loved ones. Furthermore,the management structure of the police department is anotherimportant aspect that determines the effectiveness of the department(Jacobides,2007).As such, one approach of enhancing the effectiveness of the policedepartment is through changing the management structure.
Mostpolice departments have hierarchical structures that hinder effectivesharing of information and motivation to junior staffs(Jacobides, 2007).In this case, a horizontal structure is effective in breaking thedepartment boundaries. Employees’ relationships are enhanced andmotivated resulting in more interactions and sharing information. Theoverall effect is improved performance and effectiveness of thepolice department in its service provision.
Organizationalactivities most likely to be outsourced
Modernorganizations are more dynamic than traditional organizations.Organizations have learned the benefits of outsourcing someactivities to minimize operating costs and maximize efficiency. Inparticular, most organizations outsource recruitment activities toexternal firms to ensure that competitive candidates are selected.Other activities such as auditing, training, programming andprocurement are outsourced to enhance efficiency in the processes(Daft, 2013).
However,some activities such as remuneration, staff management and makingimportant operations decisions remain the prerogative role ofindividual firms. This is because decisions that involve themanagement of internal operations are sensitive and risky.Organizations prefer to outsource technical and tedious activitiesthat may not pose serious threat to business if left to externalparties.
Biblicalworld view of organizations
Inbiblical sense, organizations should promote the common good in theiractivities. This means applying higher levels of professional ethicalconducts while undertaking their organization activities. Inparticular, organizations need to embrace conscious leadership,creating value to the society and upholding high levels of corporatesocial responsibility. In short, organizations goal should not befocused on profit making but creating social economic value to thesociety and environment.
Amaral,L.A.N. and B. Uzzi. (2007), “Complex Systems—A New Paradigm forthe Integrative Study of Management, Physical, and TechnologicalSystems.” ManagementScience,53, 7: 1033–1035.
Daft,R. L. (2013). Organization Theory and Design (11th ed.). Mason, OH:South-Western, Engage Learning.
Jacobides,M. G. (2007). “The inherent limits of organizational structure andthe unfulfilled role of hierarchy: Lessons from a near-war.”OrganizationScience,18, 3, 455-477
O’NeillMichael, (April 2009). “Public Confidence in CharitableNonprofits,”Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly38, no. 2, p. 243, nvs.sagepub.com/content/38/2/237. The analysis isbased on data from Givingand Volunteering in the United States(Washington, DC: Independent Sector, 2001), www.independentsector.org/giving_volunteering.