Origin of theUniverse
,Creation vs. Big Bang
Modern scientist believesthat the universe originated from a huge explosion some 13 billionyears ago. This is explained in the Big Bang theory. However, somescientists have disputed whether the Big Bang occurred. This is dueto scientific inadequacies of the theory. On the other hand,Christians believe in the Biblical accounts of the creation inGenesis chapter one. According to the Bible, at the beginning, Godcreated the universe. This paper looks compares the Biblical accountsof creation with the Big Bang theory. It also looks at how the BigBang theory is compatible or incompatible with Biblical creation.
One of the most importanttheories that explain the origin of the universe and life is thecreationism. Creationism is based on the belief that life originatedfrom an act of a Supreme Being through divine creation. The creationtheory is based on Biblical accounts in the book of Genesis. Additionally, the creation story in the Bible is supported by similarstories among other Abrahamic religions such as Islam and Jewishtraditional religion. While other scientific theories explaining theorigin of the universe have received a lot of criticisms, thecreation theory is one of most popularized theories, throughouthistory. According to creationists’ theory, the universe and lifewas created by supernatural beings (Williams & Hartnett, 2005).Christianity being one of the largest religions in the world, theBible accounts in the book of Genesis provide the basis of thecreation theory. The book of Genesis tell the story of God creatingthe universe, in six day and on the seven day, he created man. Godthen gave man authority over the whole universe.It is important tonote that the Biblical accounts of the creation of the universe areshared by other Abrahamic religions. Additionally, synopses oftraditions of other non-Christian religions and societies throughoutthe world have their own account of creation theories. This has madeit easy for majority of the societies to relate the Biblical accountsof creations to their own undocumented accounts when they areconverted to Christianity (Williams & Hartnett, 2005).
Creation theorists havesupported the idea that the universe was created by supernaturalbeing but failed to recognize the Biblical accounts of creation asthe literal accounts of how the universe came into being. Thesetheorists have incorporated some scientific concepts such as datingof the earth, while disputing some of the scientific theoriesexplaining the origin of the universe. This has led to the emergencyof an intelligent design explanation to the origin of the world.These schools of thought have been opposed to natural selectiontheories and methodological naturalisms that have been used toexplain the origin of the universe. They argue that some of thefeatures in the universe, both living and non living resulted from anintelligent cause (Williams & Hartnett, 2005). From a Christianpoint of view, this intelligent cause is the power of God in theBiblical creation.
The main premise of Biblicalaccount of creation as outlined in the book of Genesis is the DivinePower. According to the Bible, God is a Supreme Being which can notbe identified with nature or the universe. The divine power isrevealed when God creates nature and the whole universe from without.This is goes against the scientific rules and rules of nature wherematter can not be created or destroyed. Additionally, the order beingexperienced in the universe emerged as a result of the work id atranscendent and intelligent supreme creator rather than masculine orintelligence of human beings. According to the book of Genesis, allwhat God had created was good. Therefore, good indicates God’sintelligence and creativity (Williams & Hartnett, 2005). Thesustainability of the universe and life as well as harmony betweenthe different aspects of the creation was as a result of a divineorder rather which can not be explained scientifically.
Big band theory
One of the most popularscientific theories that explain the origin of the universe is theBig Bang theory. The theory was proposed as a result of advancementin astronomical technologies in the 20thcentury. Observation of the elements of the universe, such as theplanets and stars using modern equipment suggested that they weremoving away form the galaxy at a very high speed. This suggested thatthe galaxies could have been propelled by a huge explosion. Despitethe high speed, the galaxies are very huge such that there is nosignificance in relative distance from out galaxy. Big Bang theoristsbelieve that before the explosion, which they refer to as the BigBang, the matter and radiation in the universe was compressed into adense mass, at very high temperatures (Woolfson, 2013). Theincomprehensible state of the universe is believed to have existedfor a very short time, a fraction of a second, about 13 billion yearsago. A massive explosion resulted into all the matter and energy inthe universe. The nature of the initial matter and energy is stillunder scientific investigation. Immediately after there explosion,there was a rapid expansion at high speed. The initial expansion wasfollowed by cooling which led to the formation of subatomic particlesthat constitutes matter. The subatomic matter formed simple atoms andprimordial elements in huge clouds, which coalesced to form hugemasses of matter such as stars and planets. For billions of years,the universe has continued to expand with immense force, althoughslower that the initial expansion (Woolfson, 2013).
Creation vs. Big Bang
Thereis a huge relationship between scientific theories that explains theorigin of the universe and the Biblical accounts. This has resultedinto scientific criticisms of the creation theories and the role of asupreme being in the origin of the universe. However, there is nodoubt despite the two approaches being founded on different schoolsof thoughts, there are some points of convergence. Science involvesknowledge that is based on empirical studies and evidence that can beobserved or tested. Scientists have used this knowledge to predict orexplain some of the major natural phenomenon. On the other hand,religious interpretation of the nature and the universe are based onreligious texts such as the Bible. It is important to note that someof the aspects of nature that scientific theories such as the BigBang theory or the evolution theory have attempted to explaininvolves forces that are beyond scientific explanation. For example,although the Big Bang theory explains the forces that resulted into abang that formed the universe, it brings about the idea of creatingmatter out of nothing. According to creationist theories, this is anindication of a supernatural intervention in the origin of theuniverse. Nonetheless, there is no scientific evidence to proof ordisproof the role of a super natural being in the origin of theuniverse (Harrison, 2010).
Therefore, althoughconservative religious scholars such as the Young Earth Creationismare opposed to it, the Big Bang theory and the Christian creationtheory are compatible with each other. This is because there areseveral points of convergence between the two theories. First, apowerful force or the act of a supreme being played a role in theformation of the universe. Secondly, there are scientific evidenceand tests that have been used to predict the age of the universe asexplained by the Biblical accounts of creation and the Big Bangtheory (Henry, 2009). Also, the two theories follow similargeological histories that explain the distribution of differentanimals and plans populations around the world. While thecompatibility of contemporary scientific thoughts and emergingscientific theories and their applications emerges, the need to findcommon grounds has become necessary. As a result of the debates thatresulted from the Big Bang theory, the main stream Christianreligions such as the Catholic Church argued that the theory does notconflict with the Biblical teachings on creation. Some Christian’sthinkers have also argued that the Big Bang theory is a scientificexplanation to the creation accounts in the book of Genesis (Henry,2009).
According to Henry (2009),there is a school of argument that “the Big Bang is an apologeticfor Biblical creation”. In Genesis chapter 1, the Bible talks aboutthe beginning of the universe through divine power. According to theBig Bang theory, there was also a beginning. As such, some scholarswho have tried to incorporate the Biblical account of creation in theBig Bang theory have argued that “the Big Bang theory points toGod”. These arguments have also been supported by the fact thatatheism can do not have an explanation of the Big Bang whileAbrahamic religions are able to connect the scientific theory to therole of Supreme Being in the creation of the earth. While keeping inmind these observations, some Christians have argued that believingin the Big Bang theory is wrong. Especially among individuals withlimited cosmology knowledge, the Big Bang theory will not make senseor will offer all answers to the questions, disqualifying thecreation theory. Further, the Christian doctrine of creationindicates that the universe came into being through a word of mouthfrom God. This is as opposed to the Big Bang explanation which talksabout a process. Based on this understanding, a Christian who sees aBig Bang in the genesis account of creation make a wronginterpretation of the Bible based on extra Biblical beliefs. Additionally, has been compared to the belief that all falsereligions will lead to salvation (Henry, 2009).
There are also somescientific challenged that have been raised against the Big Bangtheory. It is important for Christian scholars who try to incorporatethe Big Bang theory in the Biblical account of creation not tooverlook the scientific weaknesses of the theory. In the 1940s, whenthe Big Bang theory was a relatively new theory, it was believed thatit had explanation to how everything in the universe abundance cameinto being. Probably, Christian scholars thought that it wasunrealistic to be opposed to a theory that looks very real, andtherefore there were attempts to incorporate it in the Biblicalaccounts. However, advancement in astronomical and cosmology studieshas made the theory more problematic, due to inherent scientificweaknesses (Henry, 2009). For example, there are severalunobservable that have added in the recent past to the Big Bang toexplain what is observed. This includes the cosmic inflationresulting into superfast expansion as well as dark matter and darkenergy. The dark matter and the dark energy can not be observed byscientists nor can they give a description of it. This is despite thefact that scientists believe that these unobservable played a majorrole in controlling the expansion of rate of the Big Bang in order tomatch the properties of the modern universe. Cosmologists have arguedthat without these observables, the Big Bang theory willscientifically fail. While some people have argued that theproponents of the Big Bang theory have added the concept of the darkmatter and dark energy to make the theory valid due to scientificweakness, some people have argued that the unobservable forces pointsto the work of a supernatural being (Henry, 2009).
In the book of GenesisChapter 1, the Bible reveals to Christians how God created theuniverse. Although scientists have tried to propose other origins ofthe universe, there explanations are not adequate. There is no doubtthat the power of a supreme being, God, resulted in what is referredto as the universe. The Big Bang theory is one of the most famousscientific theories that explain the origin of the universe. There isno doubt that there are inherent inadequacies of the theory, sincesome of the aspects of how the universe came into being can not beexplained. Some scholars have argued that the Big Bang theory andthe creation theory are compatible some Christian thinkers have beenopposed to putting the Big Bang theory in the Biblical pedestal.
Harrison, P. (2010). TheCambridge Companion to Science and Religion.Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Henry, J. (2009). Christianapologists should abandon the big bang, Journal of Creation 23(3) pp102-109.
Williams, A. & Hartnett,J. (2005). Dismantlingthe Big Bang: God’s Universe Rediscovered,Green Forest, Master Books.
Woolfson, M. (2013). Time,Space, Stars and Man: The Story of Big Bang.World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84816-933-3.