The title suggests that human beings use “passiveobservation” or “active experiment” as the only manners ofproducing understanding.
Introduction: Defining the concepts produced knowledge,passive observation and active experimentation with briefillustrations.
Are these the only two manners an individual produces knowledge”
How does the process of researching influence the study?
Is it possible for the mind to remain passive?
Does producing awareness interfere with investigation of prospect concepts?
Position: I agree with reservations
Ways of Knowing:
Areas of Knowledge:
Claim and Counterclaim: people acquire knowledge by observingand experimenting. However, other methods like imagination andintuition also lead in awareness.
The title suggests that human beings use “passive observation” or“active experiment” as the only manners of producingunderstanding.
On a basic level, we gain knowledge via the two ways. Producedknowledge is advent ideas or impressions. In arts, produced knowledgeis comparing artists from diverse regions. A historic illustration isthe physical events, which have occurred all through the globe.Passive observation is a concept referring to the manner people gainawareness through becoming attentive (Dastonand Elizabeth352). It entails learning via observation and listening.Normally, such gaining such knowhow is from trustworthy individuals.For instance, listening to information in a history class as given bythe teacher and not questioning the probability of other perspective.The concept of active experiment means when persons have to undergophysical, as well as emotional conditions, which result in theconclusion that the individual was active when facing the conditions(Dastonand Elizabeth352). An illustration of active experiment is love or pain.Both have to be experienced for one to comprehend what they mean, andit is impossible to understand by explaining. It could as well be ahistorical outlook of recorded information from diverse perspectives.
The title invites one to contemplate on whether activeexperimentation, as well as passive observation is the sole mannersvia which persons produce knowledge. Thus, further questioning towhat extreme the process of researching happenings has an influenceon the study result. This means the reflexivity issue, the place ofthe person conducting a study, and their influence on the outcome ofthe research. It questions the validity of individuals as dependableresearchers. Other probable knowledge questions include thepossibility of the human mind remaining in a passive condition and ifproducing knowledge may hinder the analysis of specific ideas inprospect.
I consent with reservations that the two are the only processes ofknowledge production. For instance, when learning in mathematics asan area of knowledge, individuals are capable of learning conceptsvia both ways. In a calculus class, it becomes possible to comprehendhow to calculate curve area within two-dimensional space throughemploying sense perception or language in reading the concept from anassigned book. Deductive reasoning applies in comprehending thestructure of axioms that are made of derivation from the mainformula. This makes it possible to do some practice problems usingthe concepts one has read. The problems differ in the steps to followwhen including function, extent of the restrictions of integrationamong other issues. These differences make the knowhow acquired bysolving the mathematics problems active experimentation. Passiveobservation also happens because of the use of reasoning and languagein reading and understanding the procedure of solving the problems.The illustration does not depict the utilization of any differentways in producing knowledge, when understanding the mathematic idea.
Different illustrations are in the history and art fields. Knowledgeis produced via passive observation in art during the observation ofa method of creating artwork. The teacher may choose to demonstratehow shading is used, during which the students listen withoutquestioning the possibility of different methods. When learning aboutthe human body anatomy, one listens passively to what the teachersays, as there is no different approach of learning about thesubject. Active observation in art happens when the student uses themethod of shading, after instruction on how it works to create anartwork. A student, after learning about the human anatomy may alsodecide to draw the human body, which improves their understanding inan active manner. In a history class, the teacher provides studentswith reading material, and they deem what they read to be true, whichis a passive way of gaining knowhow. Active experimentation mayhappen through exploration, for instance by travelling to Africa toobserve their tradition after reading from a historic book. It mayalso happen by searching for more resources on a given topic toenhance understanding, by say watching a documentary of World War 1after reading about the same from a textbook.
However, individuals produce knowledge through other ways, likeimagination and intuition. Imagination refers to using the mind tocreate something very new, or to introduce a concept, which noprevious application. Intuition is a method of becoming aware andcomprehending, which depends on the capability of reading signs,sequences and hints. Imagination and intuition differ fromexperimenting or observing however, they are all approaches thatmake it probable to produce knowhow. An example of imagination isNewton’s area formula. Prior to the discovery of the formula, therewas no experience on its functionality. The idea of forming a formulais imaginary, which is possible to visualize yet not observable.Thus, imagination was necessary for Newton to contribute in coming upwith his formula. The perfect illustration of intuition is theconcept “Eureka”, which applies to scientists (Kantorovich 35).Many of the conclusions that scientists present derive from theconcept. It means the ability to judge that an experiment, study ortest is right via flashes of awareness. For instance, August Kekuleis known for his contribution to organic chemistry following thediscovery of the “Tetravalent structure”, which happened in adream. In the similar manner, he was capable of finding a solution tothe benzene molecule structure, after having a dream about a spinningsnake (Kantorovich 185). Using intuition, the scientists made theconclusion that benzene comprises of a circular instead of linearstructure. Dreaming comprises of no sensory experience, thuseliminating the possibility of passive observation in thediscoveries. In addition, there are no experiments, which make itapparent that no active experimentation has influenced acquiringknowhow.
The works of knowledge applicable include sense perception, reason,memory and language. Sense perception – this is knowhow obtainedvia applying senses, which is the physical reaction of senses tostimuli. The argument is amid two manner of researchingexperimentation follows the constructivist school and ecologicalmethods in observation. The interesting issue becomes the ability totrust knowhow conveyed via our senses. In art we see artwork, hearthe impact on mediums like when using clay or listening to music.Reason – it is probable for reasoning to happen via observation orexperiments, as illustrated through the scientific approach.Inductive reasoning is when observing results in discoveringsequences whereas deductive reasoning views the persons performing astudy make a theory and test it by experimenting. Memory – it is aprocedure for storing what one has learnt. Memory derives fromacquired expertise, previous experiences or shared knowhow. Memorymakes it probable to create individual identity. In psychology,memory derives from observations and is an active procedure. Language– the argument focuses on “nurture versus nature”. Nurture iswhat we passively gain from others, while nature is what we learn byexperimenting. Intuition – it is an important work of knowledge byproviding a basis for questioning hints, sequences, former experienceand signs.
The areas of knowledge are mathematics, history and art. Learningmathematic formulas is both an active and passive process. Studentspassively follow the examples that the teachers use in demonstratinghow to solve an equation. This then follows active experimentationvia the assignments they are expected to complete. In history, onereads the assignments comprising of notes that have been created bythe teacher. Rarely do students question what the teacher offers aslearning material because they passively suppose it is right. Historymay also become active when students travel to different places andare able to see what they have passively understood. For instance,reading about a lake is passive, while visiting the lake site isactive. In art, it is probable to learn via passive observation whenvisiting a museum and watching many pieces of art. The experiencecould also be active when one sees a painting and decides to paintsomething similar, by using the same colors and materials.
The claims are that, producing knowledge in human beings largelyhappens by active experimentation or passive observation. In mostinstances, people are either listening to others present theirconcepts, or reading from sources, and they trust what they heed andstudy to be true, which is a passive manner of gaining awareness.After reading it becomes possible to experiment based on awarenessthat has been acquired, which is an active process. However, as acounterargument is the significance of imagination and intuition. Allnew ideas are due to imagination. In art, many people imagine imagesthat they paint, or sculptures they create. In history, when doinghomework, one cannot be said to passively or actively gain knowhow.This is because one relies on their intuition to decide the correctanswers.
Daston, Lorraine, and ElizabethLunbeck. Historiesof Scientific Observation.Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press, 2011. Print.
Kantorovich, Aharon. ScientificDiscovery: Logic and Tinkering.Albany, NY: State Univ. of NewYork Press, 1993. Print.