GnaeusPompeius Magnus was popularly referred to as “Pompey the Great.”Pompey was a Roman leader, administrator and military commander whoachieved a lot during the last decades of the Roman Republic. Pompeywas a military leader who made a name for himself by wining battles.For example, it only took Pompey three months for him to flee theMediterranean sea of pirates who had made their home in Cilicia andCrete. In addition, he managed to kill over 10,000 men and capture20,000 men as slaves not to mention the new acquired vessels. Pompeyis credited for conquering four countries in the east. Thesecountries included: Bithynia with Pontus, Cilicia, Syria and Cretewhich were added as part of the Roman Republic. The success of Pompeyover the years had led people to believe that he was the only man whocould end the war with the Mithridates. However, the war against theMithridates had long been completed, Lucullus who was the general atthe time was only prolonging the way so that he could enrich himself.After Rome got wind of this, Lucullus was replaced by Pompey, whobegan conquering the east. He drove Mithridates away from hisKingdom, entered Judea and after a 3 month siege captured Jerusalem.The entire eastern coast of the Mediterranean was now under Pompey.

ArdashirI was also referred to as the Ardashir the Unifier and was founder ofthe Sasanian Empire. There was the rule of the empire before becomingking of the Sasanian Empire in the year 224 A.D. His dynasty reignedfor four centuries before it was overthrown by Rashidun Caliphate.There are several discrepancies in the lineage of Ardashir. Forexample, according to Al-Tabari, Ardashir was born in a PersianFamily in a village in Estakhr. The tales tells of his grandfather,Sasan who was a priest of Anahita which means fire. His grandmotherwas a descendant of Bazrangi. Ardashir’s father was Papak. TheShapur on the KabayiZardusht say that Sasan was his grandfather butrather he was a lord and his father, Papak was a King. According toAgathia, a Byzantine author in the sixth century, Sasan was marriedto a local prince’s daughter who went by the name of Papak. Lateron, Sasan realized that he had some royal blood in his lineage. TheTabari’s long geneology raises questions about his ancestralbackground since it goes as far back as the heroic and mythical storyof the ancient King of Iran. There seem to be differences in thedifferent version of Ardashir’s lineage because most of theinformation in those eras was communicated through oral narrative andsince Ardashir was a king the story tellers would usually exaggeratetheir success stories in order to create a mystery around him.

Boththe Roman text and the SKZ have records of Gordian III conduct andoutcome in reference to the Persian Campaign. The Roman text indicatethat Gordain III become the Caesar after the death of Gordian II inAfrica. The new Ceasar was also took the hand of the daughter ofMisitheus after he repelled an intrusion on Sapor, who was the Kingof Persia. A few years later, he attacked Persia and defeated them atChaboras. In the meantime, Phillippus was growing in popularity andsoon became a colleague of the emperor. Soon after, Phillipus wasinvolved in the murder of Gordian III, who was 20 years of age at thetime. The SKZ inscriptions on the other hand, tell a different tale.The SKZ inscription note that Gordian III was defeated an even killedby Shapur, King of Persia. In addition, the SKZ says that Gordian’sdeath was as a result of an agreement between Phillip and Shapur. Itis believed that Phillip paid some sum of money in order to become aSasanian tributary.

Zenobia,the queen of the Palmyreneempire from Syria, was famous for revoltingagainst the Roman Empire. Zenobia become queen of the PalmyreneEmpire following the death of her husband King Septimius. Zenobia wasa beautiful queen of Palmyrene and would even join the arm in wars asshe was a skilled militant. The queen’s presence in war was amorale booster for army as she appeared with party covered clothesand the arm would feel almost invisible in the presence of theirgoddess. This perhaps can explain the reason why Zenobia conqueredother kindgoms in the East such as Egypt and the Minor Asia kingdoms.She was also a scholar and had a great wealth of knowledge especiallyin the sciences. However, according to Roman history, Zenobia wasconsidered to be a rebel. This connotation was rather unfair toZenobia since if anything the queen was moving away from the RomanEmpire and did not wish to confront the Roman Empire. The RomanEmpire was intimidated by her rising popularity since she wasbeautiful and intelligent but most of all they felt insecure by hergender. Therefore, when Aurelius became the emperor Zenobia wascaptured and executed(Mark,2014).


Mark,J. J. (2014, September 14). Zenobia.Retrieved March 11, 2015, from Ancient History: