Reading and Answering Questions (Philosophy and Ethics) Number

Readingand Answering Questions (Philosophy and Ethics)


Readingand Answering Questions (Philosophy and Ethics)

Question2. ‘Summary of Reading Assignment’

Theauthor addresses the issue of values and value judgment in life.There are various theories that are addressed in this particulararea. These include the theory of ‘subjectivism’ that argues thatvalues are relative to the individual. This means that a personapproves something to mean it is good or right. The next theory isthe one of relativism that argues that what is good or right dependson what the culture says it is. The theory of egoism states that whatis right or good is what benefits the individual. The author alsotouches on the theories of objectivism and utilitarianism. In anutshell, the author has looked into the contribution of thedifferent theories towards individual decision making when it comesto ethics

Question3. Previous knowledge of the topics/issues

Ethicshad become an issue of concern, and something I once come across, butnot into detail like it’s the case pointed by the author. Withreference to the theory as raised by the author, the learning theoryis new. I could not understand the fact that people always choosevalues that are directed to their self-interest in the sense thatwhat benefits them is what benefits them in one way or another.Despite this, the critics to most theories bring some of the mostserious concepts that cannot be addressed by the theories. The authorwas able to make sure that I understood some of the paths in lifethat cannot be addressed by the theories. It is now clear that thesetheories despite the much success that they have enjoyed in the pastcontinue to have limitations. For example, the egoism theory does notdiscuss the issue of the aspect that people can still have interestsin other people’s affairs. On the same note, there are someconcepts that still become clearer after looking at these theories.One of the these is the idea of racial segregation in America andSouth Africa that was widely accepted by the society for many yearsand was later abolished to have what we have today.

Question4. Comprehension of Topic

Withreference to the article used, there are some things I have agreedupon, from the author’s point of view. With reference to thearticle read, I agree with the idea that, most people tend to makeuse of values and ethics that favor them in one way or another, orthe one’s beneficial to them. This is the reason that most of thepeople can do something wrong because of their own interests. I alsoagree with the idea that what the society has taken as good remainsthat way unless a stronger force takes effect, according to the‘relativism’ theory (Clarke,2002).This is the reason as to why some societies still conduct somepractices such as FGM () Female Genital Mutilation) despite the factthat they know it is bad and inhuman.

Question5. My questions on the reading assigned

  1. Which are some of the main critics of the objectivism theory

  2. What are some of the things that are clear in the world, but are against the ideas of relativism theory?

  3. Please explain the relationship between egoism and ‘subjectivism’ theories?


Clarke,P. J. (2002).&nbspExaminingphilosophy and ethics: Answers for A level.Cheltenham: Nelson