Research Paper In-N-Out In-N-Out


ResearchPaper: In-N-Out


Thefast food restaurants have been a major contributor to the globaldiet-related diseases that have set the kids for the lifetime ofhealth issues. About 30 percent of the children born in the postmillennium period suffer from Type 2 Diabetes. This number is risingsignificantly in various communities, especially in developedcountries. The major health problems resulting from fast food areliver disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and asthma.

Areport by Michelle Simon shows that major companies involved withfood and food products are under the public especially due theincreasing levels of obesity pandemic. Michelle notes that variouscompanies dealing in fast food are trying to outdo one another bydemonstrating how caring they are to the children. Nevertheless,grassroots activists and national experts have been skeptical andconsider the move by such companies and train of deception, hype,utter hypocrisy and lobbying.

In-N-Outis a chain of fast food restaurants founded by Harry Snyder and wife,Esther Snyder in 1948 in Baldwin Park, California. Currently,In-N-Out is headquartered in Irvine. The chain of restaurants hasbeen slowly expanding in other areas outside Southern California toother states such as Texas, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona. The companyhas over 18,000 employees in more than 300 locations. With theexpansion of the chain, several other distribution centers are beingopened. There are plans to expand to other parts in the country, andpossibly in the world.

Thepersonnel in In-N-Out have managed to develop a strong, loyalcustomer base, making it be rated amongst the best fast foodrestaurant based on customer satisfaction surveys. The main menu inIn-N-Out comprises of three varieties of burger cheeseburger,hamburger and Double-Double. Hamburgers come with tomato, lettuce,and sauce. Others products include fountain drinks, French fries, andmilkshake. Additional items can be found in the ‘secret menu` whichis only accessible through the company`s website. These include theprotein style and animal styles patties are have been trademarked bythe company due to their association with the company.

Overthe years, the burger chain has become very popular, making it evenacceptable to areas that have strong opposition to the corporate foodrestaurants like McDonalds. In San Francisco, the local businessleaders opposed all fast food restaurants except In-N-Out. This isbecause they desired to maintain flavor of family-owned business inthe area. MarybethThorsgaadargues that locals would “beup in arms about a fast-food operation coming to Fisherman`s Wharf,&quotin his reference to the popularity of In-N-Out. Nevertheless,according to nutritionists such as Melinda Hemmelgarn, such adverts,though necessary for business, tends to mislead since there areinaccurate. Susan Linn, a psychologist at the Harvard’s Judge BakerChildren’s centre argue that fast food restaurants are a majorsource of lifestyle diseases such as obesity and hypertension. Iquote Linn, “if companies like Pepsi and McDonalds cared about thehealth of children, they would have stopped hawking their wares inlearning institutions”. Fern Gale Estrow, a nutritionistconsultant, expressed concern about the insidious nature of SmartSpot, especially in targeting children and young adults as they seemto be attracted greatly to symbols. She noted that media messagingand marketing for junk food appear to be bias. Therefore, thisresearch sought to determine the perspective of people on In-N-Out asregards to the effects on health.

Thereforethe thesis statement for this research is “theprimary players in genetically modified foods want you to trust themand buy from them simply because they consider themselves to beexperts, and their studies and adverts indicate that the food theyoffer is safe. Such profit-motivated arguments are far from accurateand cannot be trusted”.It was in line with this thesis statement that the two researchquestions were formulated (1) what are the repercussions of takingfoods from fast food restaurants? (2) Are all the marketing andadvertising from fast food businesses misleading? (3) Is itjustifiable to conclude that food from fast food restaurants isunhealthy and should be closed down?


Thisresearch was based on the below hypotheses

  1. H1: In-N-out show review and improve the nutritional value

  2. H2: Fast food offered at In-N-Out is highly calorific



Thisresearch targeted the students at San Diego State University (SDSU). This was because they were conversant with the services and productsoffered at the In-N-Out restaurants, hence the reliability of theresults. In this case, stratified sampling was used where therespondents were divided into strata based on their age groups.


Surveyquestions were used as main tools to conduct the research. Normally,a survey involves collecting information from the respondents usingtheir responses, and this was considered as the best option since thevariables used can be substantially measured and collected atrelatively low costs.The questions used sought for the gender of the respondents, agegroup, whether they eat at In-N-Out and the opinions for those whoeat at In-N-Out. Also, some questions used entailed ranking of theresponses based on the level of agreement. For instance, theresearcher gave an opinion that the food at In-N-Out is highlycalorific, and the respondents were to give their answers based onwhether their level of agreement. Furthermore, the researcher gavesome answers for some questions and the respondents were to circlebased on the answer that suits them well.

Thecurrent research used questionnaire as the main method of datacollection. A questionnaire can be defined as set of questions usedin collecting information. Each questionnaire consisted of elevenquestions. The questions used were of close format type where therespondents were to give their answers based on their level ofagreement of the questions posed and chose from the answers given.For instance ‘doyou eat at In-N-Out?’and the respondents were to answer YesorNo.

Theexploratory research was used in this research. The main focus of anexploratory research is to help discover the insights or ideas. Thisresearch was exploratory in nature as it sought to determine whetherFast Food Restaurants are the best as regards to people’s health.The research procedure entailed conducting a pilot study first. Thishelped in designing the research questions based on the responses ofthe respondents. For instance, some questions in the questionnaireswere scraped off while some were modified to fit with therequirements of the research and maintain confidentiality of therespondents. After the modification, the questionnaires wereadministered to the study respondents who were to give theirresponses. The data collected was analyzed and presented in tabularand graphical forms.

Rationalefor the Research

Whensomeone is hungry and on the run, any fast food stand would be a hit,especially because the food is cheap, convenient and tasty. However,according to Marion Nestle of such food is high in calories, fats,and sodium. Finding balanced meal in restaurants is tricky. The factis that it remains extremely difficult to follow healthy eating habitwhile eating from restaurants, particularly the fast foodrestaurants.

Therefore,there has been disagreement between nutritionists and businessprofessionals where one group is opposed while the other supportsfast food. For instance, while Coca-Cola has been engaging inextensive advertising, Carolyn Dennis, a veteran dietician and thechair of Kentucky Action for Healthy Kids Task Force, has constantlybeen battling with the lobbyists from Coca-Cola but facing oppositionfrom Kentucky state legislature for allowing soft drinks inelementary schools.

Thechoice of In-N-Out is perfect enough to provide a perspective on howpeople consider fast foods since the chain have been surviving evenin areas where their major competitor such as McDonalds has beenclosed. The use of students from SDSU as the main respondents ensuredreliability of the results obtained since they are the main clientsfor In-N-Out. In the questionnaires provided, the respondents werefirst to indicate whether they used to eat at In-N-Out before theyproceeded to other questions.

Thedesign of the questions was in such a way that the respondents gaveanswers that were critical in analysis and interpretation on theresults. For instance, the questions were pre-determined to someextent since the respondents were to choose their answers from theones presented to enhance testing of hypotheses.


Dennis,D. (2000). PromotingAdherence to Medical Treatment in Chronic Childhood Illness:Concepts, Methods, and Interventions. Mahwah, NJ: L.Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Feldmann,B. (2005). Strategiesfor Sales Success: The Essential Guide for Sales People.Melbourne, Vic: Brolga.

Hemmelgarn,M. (1987). Trendsin Dietary Intake Patterns Associated with Changes in AnthropometricMeasurements in an Adolescent Population.

Linn,S. (2005). ConsumingKids: Protecting Our Children from the Onslaught of Marketing andAdvertising.New York: Anchor.