Soap Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Soap:Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Soap:Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Subjective

Intheindividualfindingsdocument,someof themajorsignsandsymptomsthat are compatiblewith thecurrentliteraturewhich clearlyshowsthatan increasein shortnessof breathandproductivecoughassociatedwith generalized weaknessandanorexia are theprimarysignsandsymptomsof chronicobstructive pulmonarydisease(Gosney et al., 2012, p. 118).Thesubjectivefindingsleaveout pleuritic painto her rightlung`s base.However,in mostpatients,itmay not be presentin theearlystages.Thereare particulardiagnosticproblemsthat are encounteredin oldageparticularlycomorbidities forexampleosteoporosis, diabetes among others in chronicobstructive pulmonarydiseaseestablishedin thecurrentliterature(Gosney et al., 2012, p. 118).

Therelationshipof heartfailureandCOPD patientsis clearlyestablishedbecauseof severechronichypoxia resultingin pulmonaryhypertension orjustone of themanycomorbidities(Gosney et al., 2012, p. 118). Furthersubjectiveevaluation ascertainedthepatienthas a previousmedicalhistoryof hypertension, diabetes mellitus typeII, coronary arterydiseaseandperipheralvascular diseasethat is compatiblewith thepresentliterature.Thecurrenttextsdocument themanyrisksfactorsthat predisposepeopleto contractchronicobstructive pulmonarydisease.Theseare advancedage,smokers orex-smokers, diabetic, coronary heartdiseases,wheezing,andepisodesof winterbronchitis andreducedexercisetolerance(Gosney et al., 2012, p. 118). Anumberof advancedage(75 yearold),smokers orex-smokers, diabetes andcoronary heartdiseasearefoundin thepatient.Thesestronglyshowthat,althoughsubjectiveevaluation didnot resultin thedeterminationof allsymptomsandriskfactors,howeverfindingswereconsistentwith thecurrentliterature.

Culturalinfluences

Latinosas a peoplehavetwo significantculturalcharacteristicsthat playa vitalinfluentialrolein diagnosisincludingtreatment.First,Latinos regardcollectivismhighlyespeciallythefamilybased ones(Parekh, 2013, 74). Thisis establishedby thepresentliteraturewith theconnectionof manypeopleincludingfamilymembersbeingpartof thetreatmentdecisionandcare.Second,Latinos regardrespecthighlythereforetheymust be handledin a respectfulmannerandconsequently, healthcareproviders must exhibitrespectduring theentiretreatmentprocess(Parekh, 2013, p. 76).

Objective

Skinandnailsdiscolorationsknownas Cyanosis a bluishdiscolorationof theskinaccordingto thecurrentmedicalliterature(Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 196). Thisfrequentlyoccursduring acuteattacksbecausecyanosis pointsto a lowbloodoxygen level althoughin thepatientskinhaddiscolorationin theextremitiesbutthenailshadnodeformities.Abrasions, lesions,noulcerations werefoundin theskinandnailsthat werepink,dryandwarmto thetouch.In theobjectiveanalysis,theuseof accessory respiratory muscleswasnotedbecausetheyare employedto blowout trappedairmoreefficiently (Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 197). Decreasedbreathsoundsare compatiblewith atelectasis collapseorairless conditionof a portionortheentirelung. Thisisalsorelatedto insufficientbreathing patternsdueto pain.Fractured ribsorsurgicalpainmay be thecause.However,obstructionof theairway by a mucusplugusuallycausesan atelectasis (Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 197).

Assessment

Definitediagnosisandriskfactors

Thereare manysymptomsto a definitediagnosisof chronicobstructive pulmonarydisease.Breathlessness with justa littleexerciseanddifficultyin breathing confirmsemphysema. In thisstate,a personcan breathein oncebuttheairmust be forcedout before breathingin again(Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 197). Thisis theresultof examiningthecauseof thepatient`scomplaintof increasedshortnessof breathat rest.Productivecoughalsopleuritic painto therightlung`s basefora periodof two days.Thepatient`spastof beinga heavysmoker predisposeshim/her to contractingpneumonia.Therefore,symptomsencompassweakness,chills,fever,dyspnea, chestpainandcough(Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 198).

Weightlossis possibledue to therateof burningcalories in theexerciseof breathing. Thisaffectseatingbecauseof constantinterruptionof mealsdue to shortnessof breath(Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 196). Thisexplainsthepatient`slossof weightaccordingto thecurrentliterature.Upon physicalexaminationbecauseof reportedweaknessandfatigue,thesesymptomsare associationto thyroid diseasemust be ascertainedoreliminated(Scott, 2011, p. 107). Patientsin thepresentcasestudyhadall thesesymptomsdistinguishedduring theassessmentphase.Theseincludeperipheralvascular disease,hypertension, coronary arterydiseaseanddiabetes mellitus typeII.

Chronicobstructive pulmonarydiseasehas manyriskfactors.Patientassessmentsucceededin identifyinga numberof them. Thecurrentliteratureliststhefollowingas someof themajorriskfactorsforCOPD: cigarettesmoking,airpollutionorotherindustrialpollutants (Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 195). Thepatientassessmentidentifiedtobaccoas a predisposing factorbecauseshewasa heavysmoker from theageof seventeen years,althoughshequitseven yearsago.Itis wellindicatedin manymedicalstudiesthatcigarettesmokingcausesninety percent of COPD.

Relationshipbetween COPD andcigarettesmoking

Extensiveresearchby variousscientistshas revealedthatthekeycauseof COPD is cigarettesmoking.Itis responsibleforbetween eighty to ninety percent of allcases.Marginalcausesencompassan exposureto gasesanddust(Muma et al., 2011, p. 307). Thiswill affectthesmoker evenwhenthepersonquitssmokingbecauseas agingsetsin thenthedamageto thelungs progresses.Itmay takeduration of between forty to fifty yearsforsymptomsto occur.Thelung capacitydecreasesas a personages,solossof lung functionhappens(Neighbours et al., 2014, p. 195).

Plan

Aneffectivemanagementplanshould encompassbothdrugandhealtheducation.Healtheducationwill equipthepatientwith theknowledgeto understandtherelationshipbetween thehomeenvironments,simpleexerciselike walkingandfamilyrelations.Thepatienthas a daughter,friendswhowill beinvolvedin one wayoranother.Therefore,a deliberateinclusionought to be donesothattheydonot impedethetreatment(Parekh, 2013, p. 74). Thepatientpreviousrecordof drugtakingreliabilityshould be recognizedto increaseher confidence.Latinos valuerespect,hencewhenthehealthcareprovider showsher respectitmay addsomelittleoomph to thepatient.

Thepatient`syearlyinfluenzaimmunization should be adhered to strictly.Subsequently,symptomatictreatmentencompassesuseof bronchodilator medications,vitamin C 500mg by mouthdailyas a dietary supplementthat is documented by thepresentliterature(Farooqui et al., 2011, p. 222). Thedaughterhas requestedthather motherbegivenan outpatient treatmentthat will be respectedalthoughthehealthcare provider will be carefullymonitoringthesituation.Theclarityof themedicalrecordsthatitis COPD alsotheculturaldimension consideredthenthemedicaldecisionlevel ought to be verysimple.

SummaryandConclusion

Thesubjectiveevaluation of thepatientestablishedmostalthoughnot allof theCOPD symptoms.Theobjectiveassessmentledtowards thedeterminationof riskfactorsforCOPD alsoa confirmationof symptomsof COPD. Theassessmentevaluation confirmedthediseasethrough diagnosis.An effectiveplanfortreatmentof COPD should encompasspharmacologicalandhealtheducation,however,culturally sensitivetreatmentapproachesshould beincorporated.

References

Farooqui,T., &amp Farooqui, A. A. (Eds.). (2011). OxidativeStress in Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Molecular Aspects of CellSignaling.John Wiley &amp Sons.

Gosney,M., Harper, A., &amp Conroy, S. (Eds.). (2012). OxfordDesk Reference: Geriatric Medicine.Oxford University Press.

Muma,R. D., &amp Lyons, B. A. (2011). Patienteducation: a practical approach.Ontario. Jones &amp Bartlett Publishers.

Neighbours,M., &amp Jones R. T., (2014). HumanDiseases.Stamford, USA. Cengage Learning.

Parekh,R. (2013). TheMassachusetts General Hospital Textbook on Diversity and Cultural Sensitivity in Mental Health.Springer Science &amp Business Media.

ScottP, (2011). Casesin Clinical Medicine.Ontario. Jones &amp Bartlett Publishers.

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