SouthAfrica’s Apartheid Policy
SouthAfrica’s Apartheid Policy
Apartheidis a word which means “a state of being apart”. It literary meanta system of South Africa’s racial segregation that was enforced asa result of legislation conducted by the then National Party from1948 and 1994. Through the apartheid, the associations, movements,and rights of the majority of black people and other ethnicinhabitants were stopped and the minority rule of Afrikaner wasmaintained. Although the policy started in 1948 officially, theracial discrimination practice has a stem and its roots in thesociety of South Africa. Dutch colonizers, as early as 1788, began toestablish laws and regulations, which separated the native Africansfrom white settlers (Stapleton, 2010). The regulations and laws wenton even after the 1795 British occupation, which soon led to theAfricans channeled into particular areas that were later referred toas homelands.
By1946, Dr. Malan, the main apartheid architect, led the firstcampaign’s National Party, which centered on appeals openlyorchestrated to white unity. The National party at the time promisedthat when elected, it could initiate permanency to the reserves thatwere under fundamental joint principles of trusteeship andseparation. Eventually, the party got into the office with a win of90 seats compared to 64 seats of the United Party (Morris, 2012).
Immediatelyafterwards, the new government proposed a few policies as a result ofapartheid that sought to ensure the white race survival and alsoseparated the different races on each society level and in everysingle facet of life. Prohibition of Mixed Marriages was the firstact to be passed in 1949. The act outlawed marriages betweennon-Europeans and Europeans. New legislation banned sex involvementbetween the Europeans and non-Europeans the following year. Again in1950, population Registration Act was passed by Dr. Malan government(Stapleton, 2010). It categorized every single South Africannationalist into his or her own race, and subsequently demanded everyindividual to carry with the a card at any given time that statedtheir racial identity. In 1952, the act was modified by ensuring thatit issued reference books in replacement for identification cards. Itstated that anyone caught without having his or her own referencebook could be fined or even imprisoned (Morris, 2012).
However,the 1950 Group Areas Act became the core South Africa’s apartheid.It ensured different areas of the land were marked off for the racialgroups. This resulted to illegality of the people to live anywherebut there specific areas. According to Stapleton (2010) hundreds ofthousands of people were forced out and moved into segregatedneighborhoods in the reserves or cities that by 1970s, it could becalled homelands. In collaboration with 1953 Separate Amenities ActReserves, even the black informal employees that during the dayslaved in the white residential cities still opted to use publictransportation, restaurants, post offices, counters, and benches. The1952 Native Urban Area Act and the 1953 Native Labor Act ensured morerestrictions were put on the South African majority of the blackpeople (Stapleton, 2010).
Therewere three very vital movements that challenged the apartheid.African National Congress was the oldest, and it was initiated in1912. In 1958, the Pan Africanist Congress detached itself from ANC.,and it started to initiate its own campaign against the apartheid(Morris, 2012). The two groups were banned eventually by thegovernment of South Africa. Immediately, they began underground forceto violate resistance campaigns. The 1960s saw SASO (South AfricanStudent’s Organization) created. Until today, it has come to beknown as BCM (Black Consciousness Movement). In 1994, apartheidofficially ended, and the first election paved way for adult votersto cast their votes. The elections saw Nelson Mandela become SouthAfrica’s first black president.
Morris,M. (2012). Apartheid: An illustrated history. Jeppestown, [SouthAfrica: Jonathan Ball.
Stapleton,T. J. (2010). A military history of South Africa: From the Dutch-Khoiwars to the end of apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger SecurityInternational.