Speech Pathology

SPEECH PATHOLOGY 4

SpeechPathology

TheStages of Language Acquisition

Childrenwith normalhearingability,developspeechandlanguagein predictablestages.Whilethere may be deviationofthetimesof onset,andlengthof timeof eachof thesephases,theyare alwayspresent.Ifandwhenthispatterndoesnot developnormally,thechildmay facea lifetimecommunicationsetback(Liberman,2014). Thisworkwill discusschild’sjourneyfrom reflexive non-cryingsoundsto firstwords.

Pre-linguisticstage

Between2 and 3 monthsalsoreferredto as thecooingphaseis a pointwherechildrenareabletodifferentiatetheconsonant sounds‘ba’ and‘pa’andvowelssounds‘a’ and‘i’ (SKIP, 2013). Between the4-6 months,achildentersthebabblingstage.In thisphase,achildhas greatercontrolof thetongue,experimentswith sounds,has prolongedstringsof soundsandsoundplay(da, di, ma,du). In thefifth month,achildimitatessoundsandin thesixth months babblesusingfirstsingleanddoublesyllables (SKIP, 2013). Achildisabletocombineconsonants andvowelsandtalksto himself in a song.Gesturesandotherbodilysignsbeginat around the8-10 month.

Babbling

Betweenthe6-10 months,achildincreasesbabbling (reduplication of babbling) which entailsthe repetitivesyllable production,incompletelyconstructedplosives, andincreasedlipcontrol.7-9 monthsbabblingriseandfallsandsoundslikea realconversation(Liberman,2014). At thisjuncture,itis ableto imitateadultnoiselike a coughandshout.Childrenalsostartto experimentwith theearlydevelopingsoundssuchas b, p andm. Thesemay consist of vowel-consonant combinationsuchas ‘a’ and‘ma’,andcan increaseto ‘mama’or‘baba’ (SKIP, 2013).

One-WordUtterances

Fewdaysbefore thefirstbirthdaychildrenstartto understandwords,at thesametime,theybeginto producethem. In general,itis between 10-20 monthsthatthechildstartsto producerecognizable singlewords.At thisjuncture,wesaythatthechildis startingto speak.Theyoungchildbeginsto utterwordsof theparent’slanguage.Thisone –wordphaseproceedsfora concretetimeas thechildgraduallyaddsnewwordsto its language(Liberman,2014).

References

Liberman,M.(2014). Introductionto Linguistic.Retrieved on 2 March, 2015 from:http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/ling001/index.html

Skip.(2013).ChildDevelopment and Behavior.New Zealand. Retrieved on 2 March, 2015 from:http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&amprct=j&ampq=&ampesrc=s&ampsource=web&ampcd=8&ampcad=rja&ampuact=8&ampved=0CE4QFjAH&ampurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.skip.org.nz%2Fdocumen