Substantive Response




Response2q1 Cultural diversity

Hofstedecultural dimensions assessment provides an accurate view of culturaldifferences that exist among different countries. While at work inIBM, Hofstede noticed that there were cultural differences thatpersisted even when the firm had done its best to integrate diversityin the corporate culture. Employees from different continents,countries and regions exhibited cultural differences despite thecultural diversity efforts put in place by the firm.

Indeed,Hofstede analysis is justified in many aspects. Despite the modernglobalization that has brought different cultures together throughtechnology and increased mobility, some societies still exhibitcultural differences to others. This is common in most internationalfirms that have offices in foreign countries. Most of theseinternational firms spend substantial resources in promoting culturaldiversity among their workforce (Shen, Chanda, D’Netto Brian andMonga, 2009). For instance, in Africa most Chinese citizens facesresistance from the locals based on perceived social, cultural andeconomic interests. The same scenario is evident in Tanzania wheremost Kenyans who work in Tanzanians companies face xenophobicovertures.

Onewould think that, with increased interactions in the modern word,people from different cultures would exhibit warm interrelation atwork. However, this aspect of culture insensitiveness is limited tocertain regions that have not being integrated fully in the globalworld. Cultural diversity in America is more than cultural diversityin the heart of Africa, China or India. The bottom line is that, theeffects of globalization have not opened up some societies that stillexhibit close cultural ties (Fernando,Alcázar,Miguel,Fernández,Sánchezand Gardey,2013). Even the cultural diverse Western world is laden with variousaspects of cultural insensitiveness through racism, ethnicity andsentiments of cultural superiority. As such, no society can boast tohave absolute homogeneous workforce (Sartorius, Merino andCarmichael, 2011).

Response2q2 Global marketing

Lovelockand Yip provided guidelines for enhancing global marketing success.According to Lovelock, global markets are driven by cost, market,government and competition. Strategies used in global marketinginvolve global market participation, global products, and valueadding activities. Lovelock and Yip guidelines provide an elaboratestrategy that would lead to successful markets. In particular, mostinternational firms that provide services enhance their marketing byadopting common standards of service provision(Arjen andDesislava,2014).Companies common standards helps in creating a ‘brand’ image thatis easily identified at any location in the world. In these contextcustomers traveling abroad would always go for familiar products andservices from a particular company.

Inaddition, the use of technology to replace manual labor helps inreducing time wastage and increasing efficiency of service delivery(David andBoryana,2014).Clients are attracted and get satisfied by firms that offer quickservices efficiently. In this case, Lovelock and Yip marketingguidelines is correct. The key aspect in improving global markets isefficiency in product and service delivery. Due to increasedcompetition, international firms need to have value adding servicesthat attracts and improve customer satisfaction(Tianjiao, 2014).To this end, Lovelock and Yip’s global marketing guidelines arepractical and effective for successful global marketing.


ArjenH.L. Slangenand DesislavaDikova.(2014). Planned Marketing Adaptation and Multinationals` Choicesbetween Acquisitions and Greenfields. Journalof International Marketing22:2,68-88.

DavidA. Griffithand BoryanaV. Dimitrova.(2014). Business and Cultural Aspects of Psychic Distance andComplementarily of Capabilities in Export Relationships. Journalof International Marketing22:3,50-67.

FernandoMartín Alcázar,PedroMiguel Romero Fernández,GonzaloSánchez Gardey,(2013). &quotWorkforce diversity in strategic human resourcemanagement models: A critical review of the literature andimplications for future research&quot, Cross Cultural Management: AnInternational Journal, Vol. 20 Iss: 1, pp.39 – 49.

SartoriusKurt, Merino Andres and Carmichael Teresa (2011). Human resourcesmanagement and cultural diversity a case study in Mozambique. TheInternational Journal of Human Resources management.Vol. 22. No. 9. Routledge. Taylor and Francis.

ShenJie, Chanda Ashok, D’Netto Brian and Monga Manjit. (2009). Managingdiversity through human resource management an internationalperspective and conceptual framework. Theinternational Journal of Human Resource Management.Vol. 20, No. 2, pg. 235-251.

TianjiaoQiu.(2014). Product Diversification and Market Value of LargeInternational Firms: A Macro environmental Perspective. Journalof International Marketing22:4,86-107. Online publication date: 1-Dec-2014.