The U.S. History

TheU.S. History

TheU.S. History

Part1

Q.1. Disagreements at Constitutional Convention

Therewerethree majorissuesthat causedseriousdisagreementsamong theframersof theU.S. Constitution.First,theissueof givingstaterightsresultedin two campswhereone of thecampsarguedthateachstateshould beconsideredsovereign whiletheothercamparguedthateachstateshould be under thefederalgovernment.Supportersof absolutestaterightsbelievedthatindividualstateshadthe powerover thefederalgovernmentbecausethefederalgovernment,which was being given more powers, wascreatedby theconstitutionthat wasratifiedby thosestates(Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2014). Theopponentsof thisargument,on theotherhand,believedthatthefederalgovernmentwastheonlyinstrumentthat could helpthestatesin establishingasolidnation.

Secondly,theissueof slaveryresultedin seriousdisagreementbetween thenorthernandthesouthernrepresentatives.Theeconomyof theSouthern stateswasbasedon agriculturethat wasentirelysupportedby slaves.Consequently, theSouthern representativespresenteda proposalthat,ifpassed,would forbidtheCongress from banningtheSouthern farmersfrom importingslaves(CRF, 2014). Theopponentsof thisproposalsuggestedthatallowingthe slavetradewascontraryto theprinciplesof moralityandrevolution,which wasdishonorableto thecharacterof America.

Third,theissueof representationin bothhouseswascontroversialbecausestateswith largepopulationswantedto havemorerepresentatives,whilestateswith smallpopulationsizesfeltthatthiswould favorthelargerstates(Bailyn, 2013).Q.2. Wartimeexperiencesonwomen,slaves,andNative Americans

Theslaves,mostof whomwereblack Americans, weretornbetween theBritish andtheWhite settlersduring therevolutionarywar.Thisis becausethetwo sidespromisedthem freedomin casetheycould supportthem. However,itwasreportedthatmostof theAfrican American slavesjoinedthePatriot side(Morton, 2003). In manyplaces,slavesenlistandpretendto be liberalwith a hopethatthiswould culminatein their truefreedom.TheBritish would havenothingto loseifslavesbecamefree,butthesouthernplanterswould losea sourceof freelabor.Therevolutionarywarwasa disappointmentto slavesbecauseitdidnot givethem thefreedomtheydesired,insteadmostof them died.

Mostof theNative Americans supportedtheBritish becausetheyfeltthata British winwould maketheir livesbetter.Forexample,Indians hada perceptionthatAmericans would moveto their landmoreaggressively. However,theIndians, especiallythosewholivedin Iroquois County, foundtherevolutionas an unmitigateddangerbecausemostof their cropsandtownsweredestroyedby theAmericans (Brant, 2014).

TheAmerican Revolution affectedthelivesof mostwomenin a negativeway.Forexample,womenweresexually abusedandsomediedduring therevolutionaryupheavals.Forexample,Burns (2001) reportedthattheBritish troopsoperatingin Newark enteredhousesat nightandacquiredkidnappedladieswhomtheysexually abusedin their camps.Marriedwomenalsolosttheir husbands,whowerethemajortargetsof theenemytroops.

Q.3. Marbury v. Madison

Thecaserepresentsa politicalstrugglebetween theDemocratic – Republican Party andtheFederalist Party. Priorto thiscase,Federalist Adams John hadsensed defeatedandenactedtwo piecesof law(includingheDistrict of Columbia Organic Act andtheJudicial Act) (Nichols, 2013). ThelawsallowedAdams to appoint16 moremembersof his politicalpartytothejudgeship and42 morefederalists as justicesin orderto reduceJefferson’s (Adam’s successor)controlover thejudiciary.Thomas Jefferson orderedMadison (Secretary of State) not to deliverthecommissions.To thisend,William Marbury (a federalist appointee),requestedtheSupremecourtto order,thedeliveryof commissionson a casethat wastermedas Marbury v. Madison.

Marburyv. Madison lefta lastingmarkin thehistoryof theAmerican judiciarybecausetherulingseta precedentindicatingthattheSupreme Court has thepowerto reviewlawspassedby theCongress andassesstheir constitutionality (Nichols, 2013).

Therulingdeliveredby John Marshal indicatesthattheFederalists andtheDemocratic-Republics wonpartially.Thisis becausetheSupreme Court ruledthatMarbury hadtherightto his commission,butthecourtasserted&nbspthatitdidnot havethepowerto determineoriginaljurisdiction(Nichols, 2013). ThismeansthatMarbury hadto pursuethecasein a juniorcourt,which hefailedto do,givingtheDemocratic-Republican sidea winby default.

Q.4. Eventsthat ledto thepurchaseof Louisiana

TheAmericans startedsettlingin thevalleyof Ohio River soonafter therevolutionarywar.However,itwasdifficultandexpensing to transportgoodsandpeopleto theeastcoastbecauseof thebadterrainof theAppalachia Mountain (Wayne, 2003). Jefferson, thePresident of theU.S.realizedthatitwascheaperto transportgoodsalong theOhio andMississippi riversin theregionof New Orleans. However,theU.S. has nocontrolover theNew Orleans, which wasownedby Spain, andimmediatelyconceivedtheideaof purchasingLouisiana. However,Spain hadalreadystrucka dealto sellNew Orleans to France in exchangefortheSpanish Kingdom. Jefferson negotiatedwith France andpurchasedLouisiana at $ 15 million, $ 5 million above his initialofferof $ 10 million (Wayne, 2003).

Jefferson’sdecisionto buyLouisiana facedlimitedobjectionat home,especiallyfrom peoplewhofeltthat$ 15 million, a highpricethat would forcetheU.S. to borrowmoneyfrom British banks(Wayne, 2003).Jefferson wasableto convincetheresidentsthatLouisiana would doublethesizeof theU.S. andeasytransportationof goods.TheSpain raisedseriousobjectionsto thistransactiononthegroundsthatFrance hadnocleartitleof theLouisiana andhadpromisedthatitwould not sellthelandto a thirdparty.James Madison, Secretary of States, negotiatedwith Spain thatlaterstatedtheU.S. hadtherightto buywhatever itwishedto buy,includingLouisiana.

Thistransactionhadtwo ramificationsforthenewnation.First,thepurchaseof Louisiana doubledthesizeof thenewnation,which helpeditachieveits objectiveof becominga largeanda powerfulnation(Wayne, 2003). Secondly,thepurchaseopenedup theU.S. to thewest,which reducedthecostof transportinggoodsto thecost.

PartII

Q.1. DistinctAmerican culturebetween 1820 and1830

Significantchangesin economic,political,and social lifein theU.S. between 1820 and1830 initiatedchangesin theAmerican culture.TheU.S.&nbspwasan underdevelopednationin1820, butithadtransformedto an urbanized anda powerfuleconomyby the1830. During thisperiodtheemergenceof a distinctculturewasnoticed.Thechangein culturewasrepresentedin literaryworks.Forexample,philosophersHenry Thoreau andRalf Waldo andpoetWalt Whitman usedtheir artworksto fightforindependenceandself-reliance(Lewis, 2002). Thepublicationsof African Americans (suchas Frederic Douglass) arguedagainst slavery.

Commonthesethat emergedduring theperiod(1820-1830) werefoundin theworksof thefamousandemergingartists.ThemostcommontheseincludedtheWar of American Independence, thedevelopmentof a newandprosperousstate,thelifeas wellas theexperiencesof Americans, andequalityof allAmericans (Lewis, 2002).YoungAmericans (suchas Thomas Cole andAsher Durand) usedtheir paintingsto representtheAmerican romanticism. Thepaintingswerealsousedto promotethethemeof theAmerican principleof democracy.Thegenreof landscapepaintingsgainedpopularityin 1830 becausetheydepictedthevirginnatureof North America.

Q.2.Andrew Jackson’s policyforIndian removal

Andrew,the7thU.S. presidentconsidereddifferentIndian tribesto be themajorobstaclestotheU.S. civilization.Consequently, Andre supportedthedevelopmentof a policythat would facilitatetheremovalof Indians from therichsectionof thesoutheast of theUnited States of wildlandfoundin theGreat Plains. Thefinalization of thetreatyforthe landexchangeresultedinthe transferof about100,000 Indians to theIndian territories,currently thestateof Oklahoma (Sturgis, 2007).

Thepolicyfacedresistancefrom theNative Americans andthewhite missionarieswhohadalreadyformulatedeffectivemethodsof assimilatingwith theIndians. Forexample,thetribeof Cherokees hadfiledandwona case,in which thecourtruledagainst their removal(Sturgis, 2007). However,Andrew violatedtheruleof lawas wellas thecourtsystem.Indians wereforcedto signtheremovaltreatiesandthosewhorefusedwereremovedby forceby theU.S. Army.

Theimplementation of thispolicyled to anumberof negativeeffectson thelivesof theNative Americans. Forexample,a largenumberof thosewhowereforciblyremovedeitherdiedorsufferedfrom physicalandpsychologicaldamages (Garrison, 2009). In addition,thepoorsanitationin thenewlandresultedin thedeathof manyIndians. Thosewhosurvivedcould not takecareof their familiesbecausetheseriouseconomicchallengesin their newhomeland.

Q.3.Manifest Destiny

ManifestDestiny wasa beliefsharedby AmericananditheldthattheUnited States wasdestinedto expandits territorytotheAtlantic Ocean andreachthePacific Ocean by themid-1800s (Ortiz, 2009). CitizenswhoheldthisbeliefassertedthattheU.S. expansionwasan inherentrightgivenby God. Althoughthisbeliefdidnot specifytheextentto which theU.S. should expand,itstatedexplicitly thattheU.S. deservedto expand,an assumptionthat wasgroundedon thenotionthattheU.S. wassuperiorto othernationsin termsof religion,race,andpolitics.Theideaof politicalsuperioritywasbasedon thenotionthattheU.S. hadan establisheddemocraticpoliticalsystem(Ortiz, 2009). ItwasbelievedthatthefactthattheU.S. wasa majorProtestant Country madeitsuperiorin termsof religion.Moreover,theU.S. wasperceivedto be superiorto statesthat werenot madeup of the“Anglo-Saxons”.

AlthoughsomepeoplebelievethatthebeliefofManifest Destiny dividedtheUnited States, itis evidentthatthisbeliefwasincidentalto therealcausesof division.Theactualcauseof nation’sdivisionwastheissueof slaverycoupledwith thedifferencesitcreatedbetween theSouth andtheNorth (Ortiz, 2009). Thisbeliefwastheunderlying causeof theWar with Mexico, which resultedin disagreementbetweentheSouthandtheNorthon whethertheMexican territoryshould be a slaveorslave-free state.ThisimpliesthattheManifest Destiny facilitatestheoccurrenceof division.

Q.4.America as a nationof immigrants

Therewerethree groupsof immigrantsthat enteredtheUnited Stated in largenumbersbetween 1840s and1850s. Thefirstgroupofimmigrants wascomposedof theIrishwhopeople wereseekingforrelieffrom severepotatofaminein their homeland(Ireland), which occurredbetween 1845 and1850 (U.S. History Organization, 2014). Thisgroupof immigrantssettledin regions(includingthecitiesandeasternregionsof theUnited States) wheretheycould easilygetjobssince their objectivewasto earna living.However,mostof them werediscriminatedagainst andfacedinadequateworkingandlivingconditions.TheSecond groupof immigrantswastheGermans whosettledin thewesternregionsof theUnited States wheretheydevelopedfarmingcommunities(U.S. History Organization, 2014). Lastly,theChinese immigrantscameto theUnited States to minegold.Thisgroupfacedtheworstdiscriminationbecausetheyincreasedthecompetitionforthelimitedgolddepositsavailablein a fewplaces,suchas California.

Hostilitybetween theresidentsandthethree groupsof immigrantswasprovokedby varyingfactors.Forexample,mostof theGerman andtheIrish immigrantswereRoman Catholics,whilemostof theU.S. residentswereProtestants, which wasa seriouscauseof hostility(U.S. History Organization, 2014). In addition,immigrantswerewillingto workat lowwages,which reducedtheaveragewageratesnationwide,evenforthenon-German, non-Irish, andnon-Chinese employees.Thisprovokedhostilitybecausenon-immigrant populationsfeltthatimmigrantswerethreateningtheir incomegeneratingcapacity.

Q.5. Roleof womenas armynurses

Althoughthere wereonlya fewwomenwhoactively participatedin themilitaryoperationsduring theCivil War, mostof them providedcriticalservicesto militaryofficersbehind thebattlelines.One of theseserviceswasnursingof thewoundedofficers.Someof thefamouswomenwhoplayedtheroleof volunteernursesincludeJane Stuart, May Alcott, andKatherine Prescott (Stein, 2015). Initially,thesenursesofferedvoluntarynursingservicesbefore organizingthemselves into nursingcorpsgroupsafter theBull Run Battle. Servicing as nursesprovidedtwo majoropportunities.First,there wasa changeinthe traditionalperceptionof genderrolesbecausewomencould provideservicesoutside their domesticroles.Secondly,womennursedwoundedsoldiersfrom bothsides,which providedtheUnion with an opportunityto usethem as spies.Thiswasmadepossibleby thefactthatwomenofferedtheir nursingservicesto bothsides.

Althoughthewomenofferedtheir nursingservicesto bothsides,their serviceshada greatereffecton theNorth than in theSouth.Thisis becausemostof thefamousnurses(includingClara Barton) camefrom thenorth(Stein, 2015). In addition,thefactthattheNorth managedto usewomento spytheSouth madethenursingservicedeliveryby womenone of thefactorsthat contributedtowards thesuccessof theNorth.

Q.6.Stephen Douglas andAbraham Lincoln

DouglasandLincoln hadopposingviewsabout theissueof slavery,whereLincoln heldthatslaverywasagainst theprinciplesof equalityandmorality.Douglas, on theotherhand,didnot at anytimeacknowledgethatslaverywasimmoral(Leidner, 2000). Theoppositeviewsculminatedin toughdebatesbetween thetwo, bothduring thesenatorial andthepresidentialelections.Thetwo rivalsusedtheir respectiveattitudesas toolsto fighttheir politicalbattles.Douglasattitudetowards slaveryis confirmedby thefactthathechampioned thewesternexpansionandthereturnof theMissouri Compromise, which would allowslaveryinregionslocated36 degrees,thirty minutes(Leidner, 2000).Althoughthisisoftenperceivedas a politicalstrategyto lurestatesthat supportedslavery,such a movecould onlybe doneby someone whodidnot acknowledgethemoralaspectsof slavery.

Theoutcomeof thedebatebetween Lincoln andDouglas favoredeachof them in differentways.Thefirstwaveof thedebateresultedin thevictoryof Douglas in thesenatorial seat,wherehas wonwith 54 votesversus Abraham’s 46 votes(Leidner, 2000). However,thewidecoverage of thefirstdebateby themediaincreasedthepopularityof Lincoln, which gavehim an opportunityto be nominatedas a prudential candidateby theRepublican Party, andthesubsequentvictoryas thesixteenth presidentof theU.S.

References

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Brant,J. (2014). Revolutionary limits: Native Americans. U.S.History Organization.Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.ushistory.org/us/13f.asp

Burns,L. (2001). Women in the revolutionary era. U.S.History.Retrieved February 25, 2015, fromhttp://www.contemplator.com/history/revwomen.html

ConstitutionalRights Foundation (2014). Billof rights in action.Los Angels, CA: CRF.

Garrison,T. (2009). Thelegal ideology of removal: The southern judiciary and the sovereigntyof Native American nations.Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Leidner,G. (2000). Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen A. Douglas. Great AmericanHistory, 16, (3), 5-7.

Lewis,M. (2002). The Pre-Civil War Era. (1815-1850). Spark Note History.Retrieved February 28, 2015, fromhttp://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/precivilwar/context.html

Morton,C. (2003). TheAmerican Revolution.Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Groups.

Nichols,M. (2013). Marburyv. Madison and the establishment of judicial review.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ortiz,J. (2009). Everything you need to know about Manifest Destiny. NewYork: Hill and Wang.

Stein,P. (2015). Civil War nurses. Leesburg, VA: World History GroupNetwork.

Sturgis,A. (2007). Thetrail of tears and Indian removal.Westport: Greenwood Press.

U.S.History Organization (2014). Irish and German immigration. TheIndependence Hall Association. Retrieved February 28, 2015, fromhttp://www.ushistory.org/us/25f.asp

Wayne,T. (2003). Jefferson buys Louisiana territory, and the nation moveswestward. Spring,35 (1), 1.