UrbanEducation and Globalization
UrbanEducation and Globalization
Brown versus the Board of Education became a trade Supreme Court case in the United States, in which the Court ruled it unconstitutional for states laws that supported the establishment of separate public schools for white and black students. The Court decision overruled the Plessy versus Ferguson of 1896 that allowed segregation sponsored by the state that applied to all public education. Following the rule, the suit was filed that attempted a call to the rules to direct the school to reverse the policy of racism. The case was named after Brown to include a man as the head for legal strategy.
Thedecision given by the Supreme Court connects with is referred byLipman as “educational injustices and compounded inequalities inthe American schooling.” The District Court favored the Board ofEducation by upholding the state law that stated that required “equalbut separate” facilities segregated for the whites and blacks. Thesituation connects with Lipman (2010) sentiments since thesegregation of the blacks from whites, whether by private schooling,tracking, or abuses means that these “educational injustices” arebecause of the parents for the black kids’ inability to mobilizeresources and power to demand for justice.
Inmy opinion, the decision to uphold the rule means that the structuresput in place for decision-making limit the African-American parentsto stage their plight on the educational laws that affect theirchildren. Lipman’s (2010) “compounded inequalities” alsoconnects with how the rule infringed on the African-American avenuesand platforms by which they can air their grievances and challengefor the few slots of curriculum choices and instructional strategies.
The global experience is partial. Unfortunately, it is not an all-encompassing form of an umbrella. The number of processes that constitute this is shape specific and inhabits it, rather than economic structuration, universal, or political. As a result of this, new temporalities and specialties are created and co-exist yet are distinct from spatiality of “the national”. Therefore, strategic openings emerged due to the interplay from the differences (Sassen, 2010).
WhatSassen meant by denationalizing urban space is that denationalizationis impossible to be reduced to geographic conception due to strategicand highly-specialized denationalizing of arenas that are consideredto be specific institutional. For instance, Sassen (2010) gave anexample of Manhattan and London with both exhibiting free trade zonesas a result of financial issues. From Sassen’s analysis, such acase is not due to the city being a geographic entity coupled withactivity layers, regulations, and functions which is a free tradingzone. This presents institutional or a highly curved functionalrealm, which result to de-nationalization. From this discussion, itis inadequate to understand the spatiality of globalization economyin terms of space or time compression and hypermobility. The two needto be developed, which requires immense focus on concentrations ofmaterials and immobile facilities. Denationalization of urban spacemainly impacts on the racially segregated individuals, which bringsthe issue on Sharkey’s stand in his book “Stuck in Place”(Sharkey, 2013
Onthe other hand, Sharkey connects with Sassen when it comes to data onhis book “Stuck in Place.” Key data findings present by Sharkeyinclude: (1) Disadvantage – which can be acquired just like wealth.According to Sharkey, “to understand inequality in the neighborhoodshould be thought in line with generations and not with single slotsof time in a person’s life”, (2) that neighborhoods account for afew economic and social disparities which exists between the blacksand whites, (3) Presence of strong evidences that the timeneighborhoods improve, “the economic advantages of black youthssubstantially improves”, (4) Mobile programs that assist familiesleaves behind low income from the neighborhoods that’s shows mixedreactions and results but with significant impact on the familiesthat leave these neighborhoods for leafy suburb out of the centralcity. Sassen connects with Sharkey by how he uses denationalizationto trigger movement of families out of the neighborhoods they areused to (Sharkey, 2013)
The two cases argued after that of Brown versus the Board of Education are: Boynton versus Virginia (1960), which sought to outlaw racial segregation in most public transportation in the state and Motel’s Heart of Atlanta versus the United States that held the 1964’s Civil Rights Act constitutional.
Tobegin with, Boynton versus Virginia case had overturned judgment thathad been passed, which had convicted a black law student for trespassthe allocation of resources since he was found in a restaurantsituated in a bus terminal that had only the “whites”. The lawthat had been passed stated that racial segregation happening intransportation was illegal since it violated the Act of InterstateCommerce (Piketty, 2014). On the other hand, The Motel’s Heart ofAtlanta was banned by the act on the case of racial discrimination.It was largely based on the control by the Congress of the InterstateCommerce, where there was a refusal of renting the rooms to blackpatrons and giving those rights to allocation of resources. MoretonRolleston, the owner, filed a suit in the federal court with thearguments that the act requirements exceeded the authority that hadbeen offered to the Congress. Responding to the suit, the UnitedStates responded with the restrictions that required adequateaccommodation and services for the blacks. They unquestionably relateit to interstate travel. The clause presented by the United Statesdid not forbid the regulation, and it did not refuse the taking ofproperty with due process of the law (Piketty, 2014).
Thesetwo cases connect to Darling-Hammond discussion on the educationresources distribution she believed that “one cannot afford to stopworking until it is over”. She characterizes the teachers asresources that can be effectively distributed to offer the kind ofeducation that is required across the United States. On the otherhand, Piketty (2014) noted that the widening gap between poor and therich tend to irk the American people, and that to deal withDarling-Hammond on the distribution of resources, he proposed heavytaxes on the wealthy in order to reduce the gap from the top forbetter equality.
There are seven organizing hypothesis that are in regard to global cities presented by Saskia Sassen. First, the economic activities geographic dispersal that marks the globalization, along with subsequent integration of dispersed geographical activities, presents a key factor to feeding the importance and growth of corporate functions. Second, this central functions turn to be complex to a point the global firms central headquarters outsource them: they buy the shares centrally from other highly specialized firms (Sassen, 2000), including public relations, legal, programming and telecommunications. Third, these specialized global firms engage in globalized and most complex markets that are subject to economic agglomeration.
Fourth,derived from the preceding one, the hypothesis means the more theheadquarters outsource their unstandardized, complex functions, thefreer they are to pick any since less work done in the headquartersis subjected to economic agglomeration. It may still be the case,empirically, of many countries, which the leading is again theleading headquarters concentration. But in countries with goodinfrastructure, it remained outside the main business center (Sassen,2010)
Fifth, the specialized firms demanded to give a global service that wasmeant to affiliate itself with the global network or a few otherforms of partnerships. This as a result have experienced thestrengthening of city-to-city cross border. Towards the limit, thismight as well be the start of creation of transnational urbanizedsystems. Sixth, the growing number of high-skilled professionals andthe high-profit marks the raising of service firms and the degree ofspatial socio-economic service firms in these global cities. Again,the fact that talent can enormously be felt for quality of thesestrategic outputs means that proven talent means an added value andthe eventual results are likely to be experienced with rapid resultincrease. Seventh, a single result of the dynamics is the growingrange of in formalization of economic activities that find theireffective need in these global cities, and yet the profit rates donot allow them to compete for a number of resources with large globalfirms (Sassen, 2010).
Darling Hammond argues that for more than a decade, the accountability system has exclusively focused on more standardized tests that help to measure more low-level skills. She said that while these tests may be important, it is even more important the manner in which students are more prepared for careers, college and after schools. There are two examples that expounds on Darling Hammond arguments. One of them is the unprecedented investments which the state of California has created in Linked Learning ways. This helps to integrate technical and academic courses in the real working place (Darling-Hammond, 2010).
Secondly,Darling-Hammond argues that alternative methods of assessment, suchas assessment based on performance, are not equitable, and theeducators must focus on the ways that these assessments maybe used.There are some schools with reform strategies, which use assessmentmethods as a boost for external control in schools (Darling-Hammond,2010).
Myview based on the two examples from Darling-Hammond argument is thatit is unlikely for one to be successful while the assessment is lesslikely to be presented with equity. This is because they alloriginate from teachers’ distrust and failure to include theteachers in the process of carrying out reforms. Ultimately, my viewon this is that the equitable use of assessments based on performanceall depend not only on designs of the assessments but how good thepractices have been interwoven with authentic goals, reforms, andeffective teachings. Finally, it is unlikely for the assessments usedto offer the teachers with practical information and also provide theopportunities for the schools committee to engage in.
Darling-Hammond,L. (2010). The flat world and education: How America`s commitment toequity will determine our future. New York: Teachers College Press.
Lipman,P. (2010). The new political economy of urban education. Hove:Psychology.
Piketty,T., & Goldhammer, A. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century.
Sassen,S. (2000). Cities in a world economy. Thousand Oaks, Calif: PineForge Press.
Sharkey,P. (2013). Stuck in place: Urban neighborhoods and the end ofprogress toward racial equality. Chicago: The University of ChicagoPress.